5G systems are especially developed to enhance future cellular Machine-to-Machine(M2M) communications efficiently w lessened end-to-end (E2E) delay, wide inclusion, expanded battery working time, and support for a huge number of gadgets per cell. In this manner, a few standardizations bodies, for example, the European Media communications Standards Institute (ETSI), Third Age Partnership Project (3GPP) and IEEE are attempting to create the frontline advances for this new age of M2M/ Internet of Things (IoT) communications. M2M Architectures and Standards: To ensure global connectivity and interoperability among M2M gadgets the main standardization bodies are involved in developing new standards and protocols. M2M Architecture: To realize M2M communications globally, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) proposed M2M network architecture by defining its service requirements.
According to ETSI the basic architecture consists of following components:
M2M Application domain: Main purpose of Applications Domain is to provide server and end-user applications for M2M technology. Two important applications of M2M application domain are, Client Application and M2M Application. End-user services are provided by Client Application whereas M2M Application provides services located on the servers. This domain is built upon M2M service capabilities which has ability to interact with M2M devices.
M2M Device domain: The main task of M2M device is to collect and transmit data to nearby devices or infrastructure. Gathered information includes temperature sensing, humidity level, vehicle speed, and consumption of fuel by vehicle. Devices while connected to Local Area networks (LANs) transmit data to backend servers or combine data through M2M communication domain. power line communication, short-range device (SRD), ultra-wideband (UWB), ZigBee, meter bus(M-BUS), wireless meter bus, Bluetooth, and cellular gateways/relays are few examples of LAN networks.
M2M Network domain: The data gathered from M2M gadgets is transmitted to gate-ways such as, roadside units and cell base stations, called eNBs. Communication networks enable devices to communicate with the application servers using wired or wireless connectivity. M2M gateway is like a bridge, ensuring connectivity and communication between two or more devices and communication networks.
Data is being forwarded from devices to bank-end servers by gateways. Standardization of M2M communication: 3GPP, ETSI, IEEE, and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) are the standard bodies which are making serious efforts collectively in support of M2M applications development, and they came up with the idea of oneM2M architecture. oneM2M is an initiative that includes architecture, requirements, API specifications, privacy and security solutions and an interoperability framework for M2M/IoT technologies. 5G Architecture and major enhancements: The main challenge in the design of 5G is to provide connectivity to various devices with different characteristics and different application requirements. For instance, mission-critical M2M applications require least idleness, whereas applications like smart metering are delay-tolerant. A wide scope of applications with different QoS necessities prompts critical improvements in 5G. Below upgrades are required for bring compatible and integrated support for M2M communication.
Virtualization of network: Network virtualization has demonstrated its importance in setting efficient operation, management of resources and back end cost reduction in routing and switching. Due to its flexibility and dynamic requirements of resource management, virtualization of network is a decent possibility for combination of key empowering advances in 5G while limiting the cost of equipment and decreasing complexity. Using network functions virtualization (NFV) 5G network components can be implemented as editable software components, which also helps to implement further enhancements by updating API of related components. Cell Enhancements: Cell improvements plays an important role in serving ultra-dense networks (UDNs) where a plenty of gadgets will work within a single cell.
For example, underlay networks are used as data transmitters by micro, pico, phantom and femtocells. And also for potential performance improvements an improved concept on phantom cells on segregation of control and data planes are developed. Using macrocells is an important idea for control signalling over microwave or cellular frequencies, while microcells are used for data service operations on high frequency. A massive improvement in terms of efficiency of spectrum, M2M communication coverage and network capacity.
Radio Spectrum extension: Employing newly available spectrum in licensed and unlicensed bands is a key feature of 5G. As proposed in 3GPP Release 10 using career aggregation framework end devices are able to use inter and intra brand with different frequencies. Coordination of multi-point along multiple base stations and direct communication revealed an important research area in 5G based on advances interference mitigation and techniques of avoidance. These methods consider optimization of cell association and methods of power control for multi-tier networks, clearing road for M2Msystem integration.
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