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A Landmark Based Shortest Path Detection By Using A* And Haversine Formula

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Abstract— In 1900, less than 20 percent of the world populace lived in cities, in 2007, fair more than 50 percent of the world populace lived in cities. In 2050, it has been anticipated that more than 70 percent of the worldwide population (about 6.4 billion individuals) will be city tenants. There’s more weight being set on cities through this increment in population [1]. With approach of keen cities, data and communication technology is progressively transforming the way city regions and city inhabitants organize and work in reaction to urban development. In this paper, we create a non specific plot for navigating a route through out city. A asked route is given by utilizing combination of A* Algorithm and Haversine equation. Haversine Equation gives least distance between any two focuses on spherical body by utilizing latitude and longitude. This least distance is at that point given to A* calculation to calculate minimum distance. The method for identifying the shortest path is specify in this paper.

Keywords- Haversine Formula, Dijkestra Algorithm, Google Map, XML.

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The downsides happened in past paper of shortest path discovery by utilizing Dijkestra calculation is recuperated in this paper by employing A* calculation. A* calculation is heuristic in nature. The point of Paper is to discover the route between two places inside a city entered by client utilizing the Intersections between Source and Goal intersections.The witticism behind it is to progress navigation of client inside a city; particularly in India where Town Arranging approach doesn’t take after a standard rules for naming the diverse places. Most of the times an unknown person can’t discover indeed the foremost popular places inside the city due to nonappearance of noteworthy identities. Hence the paper is planning to allow an suitable route to client by coordinating it through different intersections and streets which will be effortlessly distinguished by the related landmarks and a Google map. The route is given in two parts as: 1) Content route containing route giving a intersection to intersection movement to client in conjunction with the appropriate directions and turnings directing the client to induce the precise halfway intersections or landmarks

2) Google Map for correct requested route. Paper uses client-server engineering. Communication between them is entirely in XML for adaptability. The client has client interface from where an input is taken in XML for processing. The server comprises of a Java Processing Application and Database for it. The Database utilized by handling application could be a Social database containing whole information around city. The processing application after parsing request computes route between them with all necessary subtle elements with Latitude/Longitude for Google map and sends it as XML response. Client once more parsing response gets it on Client Interface with Google map handling done in JavaScript.


The Point of Paper is to discover out the route in between two spots/junctions inside a city entered by client by making use of the Intersections in between the Source and Goal spots/junctions. The main motto behind it is to progress the navigation of client inside a city; particularly in Indian cities where Town Arranging approach doesn’t take after a standard rule for numbering or naming the distinctive spots or places. Most of the times an obscure individual can’t discover indeed the most famous places inside the city due to nonappearance of naming sheets or other noteworthy identities. Subsequently the project is intended to allow an suitable route to client by coordinating it through various junctions and streets which is able be easily identified by the related landmarks given with the route. The requested route is given to client in terms of the intersections present in between the source and goal route along with landmarks and streets interfacing them. The Landmarks utilized within the route may be noteworthy Buildings, Statues, Streets, Complexes, Landmarks, Sanctuaries, etc. The use of Landmarks includes an advantage of getting to the exact place having no critical personality whereas voyaging through route provided to client making the application friendly to the client obscure of the city to discover out the route in between any two spots or intersections within the city.The application is bound to deliver the shortest route providing a junction to junction movement to client in conjunction with the appropriate directions and turnings directing the client to induce the precise intermediate intersections (with their significant landmarks) or landmarks in specific zones in between two junctions/spots provided by client.


This paper contains “great circle distance” which speaks to the shortest path for distance modeling and optimal facility area on spherical surface. Great circle distances takes into consideration the geometrical reality of the spherical Earth and offers an elective to broadly held idea that travel over water can be precisely displayed by Euclidean distances. The need for geometrical presentation of the spherical earth gets to be exceptionally important when we take into thought an ever expanding junctions inside a city. The utilize of “Great circle distances” opens up another avenue for merging of Navigation and Spherical Trigonometry into progression of logistics and facility location. In this paper an assessment of distance area utilizing great circle distances is utilized to illustrate the application of the concept[4][3]. This paper proposes and executes a strategy for performing shortest path calculations taking crowdsourced information, in the form of imperatives and impediments, into consideration.

The strategy is built on top of Google Maps (GM) and employments its directing benefit to calculate the most limited distance between two areas. Clients give the limitations and obstacles in the form of polygons which identify closed areas in the real world[5].

A. Haversine Formula

The Haversine formula is an equation important in navigation, giving great-circle distances between two points on a sphere from their longitudes and latitudes [4]. These names follow from the fact that they are customarily written in terms of the haversine function, given by haversin (θ) = sin2 (θ/2). The haversine formula is used to calculate the distance between two points on the Earth’s surface specified in longitude and latitude. d is the distance between two points with longitude and latitude (ψ,φ) and r is the radius of the Earth. Translation to SQL statement[1] 3956 * 2 * ASIN ( SQRT (POWER(SIN(( –*pi()/180 / 2), 2) +COS( *pi()/180) *COS( * pi()/180) *POWER(SIN((orig.lon – dest.lon) * pi()/180 / 2), 2)) ) AS distance [2].

B. A* Algorithm

A* uses a best-first search and finds a least-cost path from a given beginning node to one objective node (out of one or more possible objectives). As A* navigates the chart, it takes after a path of the least anticipated total cost or distance, keeping a sorted priority queue of alternate path segments along the way. It uses a knowledge-plus-heuristic cost function of node (usually indicated) to decide the arrange in which the search visits nodes in the tree. The cost function is a whole of two functions:

The past path-cost function, which is the known distance from the beginning node to the current node

A future path-cost function, which is an allowable “heuristic estimate” of the distance from to the goal

The above pseudo code assumes that the heuristic function is monotonic, which is a frequent case in many practical problems, such as the Shortest Distance Path in road networks. However, if the assumption is not true, nodes in the closed set may be rediscovered and their cost improved.

C. A3P Core

The A3P Core consist of two major blocks:

i. Metadata based Image Classification

ii. Adaptive Policy Prediction

In metadata based classification the user uploaded images are compared and classified with the use of metadata, with this approach of metadata-based-classification the policy recommendation becomes easy and more accurate. Based on the Classification through metadata, the policies are applied to the right class of images. Metadata classification plus policy prediction will provide better and efficient policies for users.


The Point of the paper is to discover out the route in between any two spots inside a city entered by the client. This may be implemented using a client-server design where a request having two intersections as Source and Goal is sent from client to server and requested route is returned to client as a response from server. The client-server execution assumes that the client gets to the functional application remotely from client end to server one. This makes a clear thought of having client at one machine remotely accessing the application and server at the other. Hence the plan incorporates noteworthy components shown in functional project plan below: The client end consists of client interface from where an input is taken for processing. The server end consists of a Java Processing Application and Database for it.

The preparing application essentially takes as it were begin and end junctions and computes the route in between them with all fundamental subtle elements having middle intersections with landmarks and streets in a specific region. The Database utilized by preparing application may be a Social database containing entirety data almost city in terms of intersections, landmarks, streets and areas. The input containing source and goal intersections for the asked route is sent to the server conclusion as a request from client end. This request is inserted in a XML record can be called as XML request to be sent to server. At server on accepting a XML request; it is provided to a XML parser for extricating fundamental information i.e. source and destination junctions which are in turn provided to Java Processing application as an input. This application computes a requested route (a most limited one) by connection with the database utilizing SQL inquiries to get vital data for computation.

For a computed route to be sent to client, it is once more implanted into a XML forming a XML response. This reaction on accepting at client end is once more sent to a parser to extricate a route to be shown to the client at to user interface.

A. Shortest route in the form of text route:

A client has arrangement to know the shortest way from source to goal in two ways content-based route and graphical route by utilizing Google outline. A content-based route gives correct way from source to goal in the shape of directions, turns, middle spots and distance between that spots. A path is given to client by utilizing SQL query. At last it gives the overall shortest distance from source to destination.

B. Shortest route graphical representation:

Graphical representation of shortest route is appeared in figure. It highlighted the shortest course from source to destination. Client can utilize both the procedures to effortlessly know the route between source to goal. GPI provides different strategies to get to the highlighted route.


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