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A Look at the Four Parameters of Abnormal Psychology

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Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal Psychology as a discipline is concerned with studying people whose behavior and thoughts fail to compare with those of norms, which are considered acceptable in a given cultural aspect. It takes a scientific study approach, with the researcher focusing attention on behavior that affects the capacity of an individual to adapt to the normal standards of a locality. As such, this specialty deals with conducts that are considered to be negative, contrary to abnormal, in the fact that they simply deviate from acceptable norms. Consequently, the subsequent write-up gives a deeper insight on abnormal psychology in close reference to the key terms surrounding it as well as models that attempt to describe the discipline.

Norms, culture, Asylum, Psychoanalysis, and Somatogenic perspective are some of the terms that are in as far as abnormal psychology is concerned. Psychoanalysis refers to the approach of mitigating abnormal mental functioning by addressing forces associated with unconscious psychology (Ray, 2013). This intervention of treatment is based psychogenic perspective, which links abnormal behavior to psychological functions. As such, abnormal conducts are monitored on a frequent basis in a study termed as positive psychology with an objective of improving traits, abilities, and positive feelings. In most cases, culture is associated with certain impacts in regard to governing behavioral changes. This effect is evaluated through multicultural psychology, a discipline that evaluates the impacts of race, gender, culture and similar factors on behaviors and pays attention on how such parameters may affect abnormal behavior.

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The present judgments are based on a myriad of parameters and are affected by the interaction of distress, dysfunction, dangerousness, and deviance. These four parameters of concern are often termed as four Ds. Thoughts, emotions, and deviant behaviors are some of the factors that make up abnormal psychological functioning. These three parameters are termed as deviant since they fail to compare to the norms that are considered acceptable by the society (Ray, 2013). For distress or pain to occur, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors must result in suffering. In this perspective, if these three issues affect the daily functioning of an individual such as social interaction, work, and self-care, then they result in dysfunction (Ray, 2013). In most cases, abnormal functioning is associated with dangers as a result of risky, suicidal, aggressive, and self-harming behaviors.

Owing to the complexity of abnormal psychology, various models are used to explain this discipline in an attempt to explain the treatment and causes linked to mental illness. The biological model is based on psychological principles that link abnormal behavior with malfunctioning of critical parts of the body such as the brain. On the other hand, the psychodynamic model associates the behavior of a person, whether abnormal or normal, to psychological forces that are beyond the knowledge of the concerned person (Ray, 2013).The behavioral model argues that the action of an individual has close links with the immediate environment. Scientists focus on how an individual responds to the stimuli and subsequently, basis their treatments and explanations on the principles of learning.

The cognitive model ascertains that abnormal psychological functioning comes as a result of varied types of cognitive issues such as illogical reasoning processes. According to Ray (2013), cognitive therapy is adopted to aid in the recognition of negative thoughts that result in depression. The humanistic-existential model links abnormal psychological functioning to the absence of self-actualization. Contrary, the sociocultural model argues that abnormal psychology can be best understood through evaluating the factors that affect the life of an individual.

In conclusion, abnormal psychology focuses on the study of traits that deviate from the culturally accepted norms. The four Ds criteria is adopted in present day judgment of abnormal psychology, which is a complex study that is best explained through the use of models.


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