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Acute and Chronic Effects of Exercise on Type II Diabetes

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Acute and chronic effects of exercise on type II diabetes Introduction : The worldwide prevalence of type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has undergone an unprecedented increase within the last two decades and has recently reached pandemic levels (H. King et al., 98) . According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 425 million adults are suffering from diabetes in 2014. T2DM is a significant cause of premature mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), blindness, kidney and nerve disease, and amputation. Lifestyle characteristics, such as physical activity, diet, and stress are important factors that influence development and prognosis of type 2 diabetes (A.D. Deshpande et al., 2008) . Although regular physical activity (PA) may prevent or delay diabetes and its complications, most people with type 2 diabetes are not active (Song, C et al., 2016, Nicolucci, A et al., 2012). It has been suggested that being overweight with an abdominal fat distribution probably accounts for 80 to 90% and a sedentary lifestyle accounts for at least 25% of all type 2 diabetes incidence (Astrup A et al., 2000).

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Next, we will analyze the meta analysis of how yoga and exercise have played a major role in the type II diabetes. Yoga is believed to have originated in India more than 2000–3000 years ago and has been associated with religious, cultural and physical activities. The yoga practices commonly used to promote health and manage illness include asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. Yoga is increasingly used as an adjunctive therapy in the management of T2DM Physical activity is known to improve glycaemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes (Jayawardena, R et al., 2018). It is recommended that adults with diabetes should engage in 150 min or more of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity weekly, spread over at least 3 days per week, with no more than 2 consecutive days without activity, According to the ACSM 10th edition. This systematic review will analyze the effects of resistance training on individuals with type II diabetes and how it helps with the insulin sensitivity and longevity of the patients suffering from this epidemic disease. The importance of this research is to help Individual and peers to gain knowledge and the benefits of exercise with relative to their disease progress. Type of Yoga: The Hatha (or forceful) yoga, Raja (Royal or classical) yoga, and Mantra yoga are perhaps the best known and most commonly practiced forms. Mantra yoga, emphasizing the use of specific sounds or chants to achieve mental and spiritual transformation, was popularized in the West by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of Transcendental Meditation (TM). Raja yoga, Patanjali’s eight limb system of meditation, contemplation and renunciation, seeks self-realization and transformation through progressive control of the mind (Innes, K. E et al., 2007).

The most common type of yoga used or performed in the Northern America is the Hatha yoga which includes the postures known as asans, and how long they need to be held (Innes, K. E et al., 2007, Roland, K. P et al., 2011). A yoga pose involves isometric contraction of specific muscle groups to stabilize the body as one performs the posture. The pose is typically held from 30 s to several minutes, depending on the style (Roland, K. P et al., 2011). Diabetes: For the simplicity of the paper and acknowledging the research the main focus of the review has been on T2DM. T2DM is the condition in which the Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body’s important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren’t enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Physiological effects of Yoga: Heart Rate and VO2 max: As yoga can be classified as an aerobic exercise with intense contraction and stretching of the muscles. The research performed by the (Clay, C. C et al., 2005) proved that the heart rate and VO2 max did not change much or increase during the workout as while performing hatha yoga routine they found that yoga routine elicited a lower cardiovascular response than walking at 3.5 mph. However, when evaluating HR and VO2 at different points throughout the 30 minute routine they found that the percent MHR was significantly higher during sun salutation postures (a dynamic series of poses that were repeated for 5 minutes at the beginning of the routine) than during the non-sun salutation postures, but did not find significant increases in percent VO2 max (Cowen, V. S et al., 2006, DiCarlo, L. Jet al., 1996) Muscle adaptation to yoga: (Tran et al., 2001) evaluated muscular strength isokinetically in their ten participants and found significant increases for elbow extension, elbow flexion, and knee extension strength, and also found that isometric muscular endurance for knee flexion increased. In total, Tran et al. found muscular strength increases of up to 31% in three out of the four categories measured over the eight week training period. (Shiraishi, J. C et al., 2016) found that when a muscle is under tension, the number of sarcomeres undergoes changes and make the muscle contraction more effective. (Coutinho et al., 2004) reported that the increase in strength was due to isometric contraction, because the addition of sarcomeres and an efficient muscle action lead to an adequate superposition between actin and myosin filaments.

This proved that the yoga group performed better on the muscle endurance test as how many push ups and sit ups could be performed in 1 minute and p-value remain < .05. Effect of yoga on blood lipid profile: Of the 12 studies found while analyzing the meta analysis “The Influence of Yoga-Based Programs on Risk Profiles in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” that assessed the potential effects of yoga on blood lipid concentrations, all suggested that the practice of yoga and yoga-based programs may improve lipid profiles. Four uncontrolled studies targeting adults with diabetes (Monro R, et al., 1992, Bhaskaracharyulu C, et al., 1986) and/or other chronic conditions (Damodaran A, et al., 2002), demonstrated significant positive changes in blood lipid levels following yoga-based interventions that ranged from 8 days (Bhaskaracharyulu C, et al., 1986) to 3 months (Bhaskaracharyulu C, et al., 1986) in duration. Observed improvements in blood lipid fractions included reductions in cholesterol (Jain S et al., 1995, Bhaskaracharyulu C, et al., 1986 , Damodaran A, et al., 2002), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very LDL levels, increases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and reduced LDL/HDL ratio relative to baseline levels and/or control values.

Conclusion : After analyzing meta analysis and reading articles on the effects of yoga, yoga does gives you an edge on the diabetes and how to fight with this epidemic disease. Yoga does provide benefits as strength training is hard when you are old and, if you have health restriction of performing heavy lifts. Yoga helps you raise your blood pressure and HR which elevates your VO2 max. In conclusion, the findings of controlled trials published to date suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of major importance in the management of T2DM, including HR, Muscle adaptation, glycemic control and lipid level. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure, enhance pulmonary and nervous system function, improve mood, sleep, and quality of life, and reduce medication use in adults with T2DM. However, given the methodological limitations and heterogeneity of existing studies, findings must be interpreted with caution. Additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential therapeutic benefits of standardized yoga programs in populations with T2DM.

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