Adaptations of Camels to the Ecosystem of the Desert

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When it comes to camels, classification known as, family: Camelidae, genus: Camelus, the main two researched species are on the Bactrian camel, and the Dromedary camel, they are native to the Asian and Northern African desert regions(Funk, et al. 2018). Deserts have low rainfall and high variability in precipitation. These are produced by lack of precipitation and not high temperatures, indices of aridity, rainfall is denied to deserts due to abiotic factors such as precipitation, temperature, geology, and heat. As a result, desert plant and animal morphological and physiological adaptations are demonstrated (Ward, 2009). Rock pedestals, sand dunes and bare-rock hills rising from near-horizontal, gravel-covered plains almost vertically all added to the illusion of a remarkable landscape, the desert (Abrahams, et al.2009). A main home for camels, the central desert biome covers about half of that area, whilst the broader Sahara occupies a full spectrum of semiarid and related ecosystems (Borokini, 2019). Physiological adaptations like storing fat and water, temperature regulation and physical features like long lashes and thicker lips, are some of the ways that the camel is adapted to live in desert environments.

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Physiological adaptations keep the Camelus genus survival through the effective storage they have when it comes to retaining water and fat. As a result of the camel's practically exceptional capacity to make due for a considerable length of time without drinking water, even in the most sweltering deserts, camels have adjustments that lessen water necessities (Young, 1982). The species can subsist without water for a few days. Its stomach has numerous diverticula, or pockets, each shut by a sphincter muscle; water is put away in the pockets and discharged as required. The camel has a very large capacity for drinking, but does not store excess for future needs, it regenerates water, already lost, through evaporation, urine and feces (Funk, et al. 2018). The kidney is critical in water preservation. The long loops of Henle, which are four to multiple times longer than in cows, have the capacity of both, concentrating pee and diminishing its stream. A lethargic camel pees just drops of concentrated urine to preserve water, and additionally enables camels to drink salty water which is more concentrated than ocean water (above 3% NaCl), and to eat salty dangerous plants. (PMES-2015). This ability to retain water, increases the Camelus species chances of survival because they are now able to live off more when the environment is giving off less.

Retaining fat is another unique adaptation setting the Camelus apart from other animals. A camel does this by utilizing the humps for this process. The humps are stores of skin and fat, ingested as nourishment when food is challenging to find (Funk, etal. 2018). It is on the animal’s back, and is a huge store of fat inside a work of connective tissue, however, with no water. Within the sight of oxygen the fat is then utilized to create energy and water (PMES-2015). Which is different than for example, a pig, who does not have humps, lives in a more vegetated area, and has sphincter muscles centralized in the belly region rather than on its back. This again rises up its chances for survival since the camel does not need to compete for any kind of food since it already has a backup supply.

An additional physiological feature the Camelus possess, is the ability to internally fluctuate its on temperature. To adapt to the warmth, stress, and dry season of the desert, the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) has created uncommon physiological and biochemical properties. Heat shock proteins are proposed to assume a key job in the protein homeostasis and thermotolerance. Correlation of these atoms is significant to grow our comprehension of the general camel physiology and homeostasis (Hoter 2019). Camel internal heat level continues fluctuating from 34°C to 41.7°C (93°F-107°F.). This enables the creature to perspire less. The red platelets of a camel are little and oval fit to keep the progression in the chance of a dehydrated state and to keep them from breaking because of assimilation. In hot dry regions, for example, the Empty Quarter of Arabia, the Sahara in Africa or the Death Valley in America, the water misfortune through perspiring (vanishing) is enormous. This species has a distinct ability called temperature vacillation. This is when a dehydrated camel spares water by expanding their internal heat level to more than 42 ºC. The internal heat level is adjusted to the outside temperature. Which would harm the most heat sensitive cells of the cerebrum and retina, known as an, 'inbuilt air-conditioning system'. The huge camel nasal surface assimilates the fume and cools a network of little veins, named the 'carotid rate'. This carotid vessel arrange encompasses the jugular vein and cools its blood. While in transit to the heart the cooled venous blood meets the warm blood vessel blood setting off to the cerebrum and eyes, cooling it by more than 4 ºC. This is known as a 'counter current' impact. Which can be compared to the countercurrent process in marine animals, adjustments of countercurrent heat trade, assist them in hazardous climates (PMES-2015). This is unique to camels since other species who are not found in this land, like humans, are not able to do this since, in this case, a human will want to keep itself at the same temperature and will change itself in order to keep everything the same when in a cold or humid environment, also known as homeostasis. It is evolved characteristics like these that enable a camel to sustain and increase the successfulness in this kind of home.

Physical features also ensure that the camel can sustain itself in a desert environment. To sustain in the desert, structural qualities are evolved in the lips, to gnaw off and eat prickly plants that develop there (Funk, et al. 2018). Their bushy prehensile lips, the upper two parts of which are isolated and move independently (Young, 1982). A Camel additionally has 34 sharp teeth ,the lips are thick. This is all to enable the camel to eat the thorny shrubs developing in the deserts without getting cut (PMES-2015).This expands their durability, and makes them unique enough to live in this habitat, for the reason that not only are they able to store fat and water in scarce situations, but now they are able to eat a variety of foods which allows them to not be selective with what they consume which is vital in a barren land like the desert.

Fur is another physical adaptation feature, that this species has in order to keep boost its survive rate. Thick, expansive sole cushions and thick callosities on the joints of the legs and on the chest, whereupon it rests in a bowing position, empower it to withstand the warmth of the desert sand. In addition, (Funk, et al. 2018) Although the camel is under the order, Artiodactyla, whose other ruminating individuals all have cloven hooves, the camel's feet are not hooves, but instead huge pads with two front toe nails. The cushions are an incredible adjustment for movement over sand, however they split and drain when compelled to go over unpleasant and stony surfaces (Young, 1982). Textured tan skin is available in the abdomen with occasional shedding for temperature adaptation.Sternum secured With hairy cushions to ensure against hot sand during laying down.The knee is secured by pads of leathery fur to help overwhelming loads(PMES-2015).It is modifications like these that enable the camel species like the Camelus dromedarius to withstand competitors for survival.

In today's and past society, surrounding the camel, it is visible that they serve a number of purposes towards humans, taking them away, in result, would impact the economic system. Camels have been known to be of extensive monetary significance for Bedouins in Saudi Arabia; they drink their milk, eat their meat, weave the hair for their tents and burn the stool for fertilizer. Additionally camels are considered as an indication of riches in the Bedouin society (Hussein et al., 2018). Around one million camels live in KSA with noteworthy economic, social and environmental significance. It can get by in hot dry desert because of anatomical structure and its natural adjustments (PMES-2015). This exemplifies how useful and vital this species is to humans specifically in the Saudi Arabian region. In this case an absence in camels will destroy populations like, the Bedouin society, and their culture since camels are seen as a sign of wealth, trade will be difficult due to the absence of fur, villages will eventually starve without a proper source of nutrients from the milk or meat of the camel. If there is an extinction of the species from the habitat, many villages will be forced to search elsewhere for another animal like this, and in the desert, where there are not many large animals that are as functionable, adapted and unique as a camel, that is always not guaranteed or common.,

Camels are an adapted species for the desert environment proven by, their physiological adaptations like storing fat and water, temperature regulation, and physical features, including, thicker lips, and fur pads. These modifications allow this species to have a successful survival rate and become an important role in societies, for example, the Bedouins. Without the aid of camels, the different societies of the human population will not have a major source of milk, fur, and other valuable goods that are results from the animals adaptation to survive . It is species like the camel, that help make up the ecosystem we live in today.

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