The Psychological and Physical Impacts of Student Adaptation to the Adult Life


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It was indicated in the said topic that living independently showing themselves what they are from their homes. The habitual they have used to be and the family ritual back home could be practice living alone. Eventually, a person can adopt different attitudes out of the society that differs from home. Some provincial students would likely to be more attached in parental dependency. Like they have missed the cook, smell of their room, comfiness in their house and their motions may not be limited. (Jameison & Simpson 2016).

Clercq, M. et. al., (2013) stated that adapting to the new environment is one of the keys to a student’s success. It is important for it helps the student attain their goals of studying. Based on the result, it was identified that parental guidance and self-efficacy beliefs are applicable to the adjustment of the student to the new environment where he or she is into. The study shows that self-efficacy was the most powerful and effective way in students’ adaptation and adjustment.

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The study of Beiter, R. et. al., (2014) stated that the connection of depression, anxiety, and stress towards the college students. It was found out that the students who were considered as most depressed, experiencing anxiety and stress were the transferees, upperclassmen, and students who are not living in the campus.

College students are experiencing a transition in their life as a student that leads to unhealthy nutritional behavior and the possibility of gaining weight. Based on the results gathered, it was identified that students who are living far from their parents for more than one year have higher total skills scores compared to those who are just living away for one year or less. (Wilson, et al., 2016)

The significant relation between the subjective and creativity would have a great impact on the students. In addition to it would be the psychological and social well-being that was significantly related. The study of the role of self-efficacy was not more on subjective well-being than the creativity. It aims to broaden the role of creativity and efficacy. In assessing the creativity, the results would show that their significant relation between the creativity and subjective emotional psychological and social well-being. The demonstrated predictive capability of subjective well-being through the self-efficacy and creativity results from the regression analysis. Strengthening self-efficacy and optimizing creativity, therefore the findings would have a significant implication for improving students’ subjective well-being (Tamannaeifar & Motaghedifard, 2014).

Self- efficacy plays a vital role in molding an individual into a person distinct from other individuals. It is a characteristic that leads a person to be the person they really are. Thus, self-efficacy of an individual may be affected by several factors and one of that factors is the environment they grow up. Example to that is how different western people from Filipino people in terms of living independently and maturity. Western countries honor independence and maturity according to age, just like how foreign young adults gain independence the moment they turn to their legal age, they are obliged to live on their own. Contrary to how Filipino people gain independence from parents. Filipinos get to live on their own mostly during the moment they decide to build their own family. This mentality of Filipinos is affected with how we Filipino value family bond.

Chapter 3


This chapter oversees the standardized methodologies used in the study. It discusses the research design, research environment, research respondents, research instrument, and the collection of data, as well as its analysis procedure.

Research Design

The study is quantitative in nature which aim was to find the relationship between two variables and make judgements using numerical data. The researchers used descriptive-correlational analysis design in correspond to an approach of conducting this research, is to present elements involved in examining between the self-efficacy of students living independently and their parental dependence in doing tasks and their physical, emotional, and social relationship with their parents. As stated by Aggarwal (2008), descriptive research gathers information about prevailing conditions or phenomena for the purpose of description and interpretation. Another statement from Zormuehlen (1981) is that descriptive survey attempts to establish the range and distribution of some social characteristics and discover how this characteristics may be related to certain behavior. On the other hand, correlational approach is used to know the direction and magnitude of relationships among variables in a particular population (Cristobal & Cristobal, 2017). Which sole purpose is to figure out which variables are connected, finding variables that seem to correlate, so that when the other one is changing you will know how the other one will change.

Research Environment

The study was conducted in the University of Cebu- Private Campus, located at J. Alcantara Street Cebu City, Philippines 6000. It is one of the premier campuses of University of Cebu for Senior High School Department that was built on 2017. The University of Cebu offers education from Pre-School, Grade School, Junior High School, Senior High School, Undergraduate Degrees and Graduate School. Private Campus has provided different tracks such as Academic Track, Technical Vocational track, and Arts and Design which showcases youth to attend Senior High School before entering the collegiate career. The University of Cebu is one of the known institutions both local and international for its home of top notchers. The graduates as the product of the school have the potential in demand to the needs of local and international competencies. The institution offers affordable and quality education to every aspiring and motivational learner. Its goal is to democratize excellent education, create an idealistic leader and be able to give hope and transform lives.

Research Respondents

The study involves the participation of 359 adolescents from Humanities and Social Sciences strand under the academic track program offered in the university, both morning and afternoon session respectively in different sections. The Humanities and Social Sciences is a strand focuses in major aspects of humane and the associated behavior, also the involvement of politics. In order to produce a representative sample between the levels of dependency to living independently, a purposive sampling due to the limitations of the study was used. Purposive sampling gives more leverage to the researcher to bring out the best information from the samples. In addition, a target population is carefully chosen to meet the goal of the study. It is also used to increase the effectiveness of a sample design in regard to survey cost and estimator precision. Therefore, the distribution of social frame reference was differentiated by various respective sections. On the other hand, the respondents must also acquire the various concerns of this matter to identify the initially stated in living independently to parental dependence.

Research Instruments

As for the instrument, the researchers provided an individual sheet that contains questions to collect the personal information of the chosen respondents together with the Independent Living Scale and the Child-Parent Relationship Scale. The personal information gathered for the purpose of gathering demographic data so as attaining the précised answers of the statement of the problem considering; age, gender, the name of the province, and type of accommodation in the city. The subjective data sheet was accustomed at the very beginning of the study.

The 40 item questionnaire derived from the standard Independent Living Scale (IL Scale) by the Centre for Neuro Skills (1986) was used to measure the student’s self-efficacy in living independently. The standard IL Scale consist of 19 Categories where the researchers only used three questions each coming from the category of hygiene and grooming; dressing; medications; breakfast preparation; lunch preparations; and dinner preparations. Another two questions each coming from the 11 categories namely travel; eating; dishes; toileting; time management; laundry; safety and security; leisure; alarm clock; cleaning; and shopping. The mail and phone category was not used for it has no significant role in the life of the students involved in the study.

The Child-Parent Relationship Scale (CPR Scale) by Pianta (1992) was used to determine the level of parental dependency among students. This scale is intended for the assessment in order to be aware of the parental relationship and dependency of the students towards their parents. The given questionnaire has 30 items to be answered by the chosen respondents addressing various concerns of the students who are affected by this matter. This would determine how dependent a student to its parents.

Before conducting the survey, the researcher must prepare the medium needed to start the survey. Upon receiving the respective questionnaire, respondents are ought to fill up the personal data sheet. On the same paper following the personal data sheet is the main survey questionnaires of IL Scale having a similar 5- point Likert type of scaling ranging from 1 not confident at all to 5 very confident and the (CPR Scale) with the same Likert Scaling ranging from 1 definitely does not apply to 5 definitely applies .The following items have to be identified by their corresponding answers guided through the study of Self-efficacy in Living Independently and Level of Parental Dependence of Students from Provinces. Moreover, this is related to the proceeding calculation, the interpretation, and presentation of analysis on the latter part. Before it mentioned, the questionnaire was guided by the Statement of the Problem wherein possible outcome of the response is inclined to itself.

Data Collection Procedure

The researchers determined first the number of students in HUMSS strands in University of Cebu Private Campus Senior High School department, both morning and afternoon schedule, including the names of those coming from the province but living in the city to study. In addition, the researchers made a letter addressing the principal to ask permission to conduct a data collection. Enclosed in the letter was the purpose of the study, the student’s involved and how the procedures will go through before conducting the data collection. Then the researchers conducted the distribution of the survey questionnaires to the chosen respondents. The questionnaire contains a permission asking the respondents to willingly answer the questions truthfully. An agreement pertaining to the assigned strand and the schedule in order to utilize the time efficiently was made. Also, the researchers guided the students in filling-up the direction to fully answer the questionnaire given.

The researchers supervised 30 students that will answer the questionnaire, this to ensure they understood properly the following procedures or instructions written in the questionnaire. The principal of the Senior High School students had given the researcher the permission to conduct the field work to appointed time one week in advance. Participant were assured that any information given were treated with high confidentiality and only used for research purpose no other than that. The participant was assured that any information given were treated with high confidentiality and only used for research purpose no other than that. The participants are given the data sheet before answering the questionnaire about the study Self-efficacy in Living Independently and Level of Parental Dependence of Students from Province, then calculated after.

Data Analysis Procedure

The self-efficacy of living independently and the level of parental dependence of students used mode and median scores to measure the average scores of cases acquired for the categories in each variable. Mode scores enable to identify the most frequently occurring score in a distribution while the median gives the exact mathematical center of a distribution. In addition, the researchers used frequency and percentage to determine if age, gender, province of origin and type of accommodation in the city play a significant role on a student’s self-efficacy and if this factor has relation to the isolating question in the level of parental dependence of the students and self-efficacy ion living independently. It is a descriptive statistics that used personal information to know the random respondents that belong to a certain sub-category.

Furthermore, Spearman Rank-Order Correlation is used to measure two ordinal data such as to determine significant relationship between self- efficacy in living independently and level of parental dependence.

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