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Advancements in Festival Management Research

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Introduction:

Globally there many festivals are being hosted across the world. From the ancient times various types of events have been organized whether it is festival or not. People loves to enjoy verities of festivals. Various types of festivals and events have long existed as significant part of human society and were considered as forms of public display, civic ritual and collective celebration. In fact, people in all cultures recognized the need to set aside certain times and spaces for communal creativity and celebration (Quinn, 2009). For its roles it is being increasingly important to people specially toward tourist.

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Day by day festival is increasingly attracting more and more tourists both local and outsiders. It helps to cheer the people up. On other hand the well being is a new theme to the world. Well-being is somehow related to the society and individuals eudemonia. Sometimes people celebrate some types of festive activities which not only can be reason to socio-environmental degradation but also cultural and moral degradation.

The challenge to event management is particularly pronounced from the perspective of destination management, because many staged events (Getz 1997, taken from Yeoman et al. 2007) “suffer from a “product orientation” – that is, organizers try to sell their event with little or no regard for what potential customers need, want and will pay for. The ability of festivals to become successful tourist attractions depends in part on their goals and the way in which they are managed.

In modern days festivals and events are becoming advanced for the changing trends and developments of technology. Commercially the organizers and providers are focusing only to its customers instead of overall society and environment. Sometimes people loose the control and make unwanted occurrences.

The purpose of this article is to create awareness and make relation between the festival management and well-being. For this study is done to develop a better way to apply the theoretical knowledge and practical implementation in the field. At first Study is going to be conveyed through real theoretical meaning and find out the problems in contents of Bangladesh and global perspective. Later on, the research will construct a structure based on further advancements in festival management research with relation to well-being in sustainable way for individuals, society and environmentally.

Worldwide people observe many festivals and events, so do People of Bangladesh. It is known that Bangladesh is the land of festivals for this there is a saying, there are more festivals than its ritual months. Bangladesh has its ancient’s civilizations and old cultures in many dimensions.

Literature Review:

Janiskee (1980: 97) discussed that festivals and events can be considered as ‘formal periods or programs of pleasurable activities, entertainment, or events having a festive character and publicly celebrating some concept, happening or fact’. The practices of festivals dated back centuries, even millenniums. Take into account, the diverse nature of events, their formation is not linked to the same time period. It is well known that the exhibitions and trade events were held in the ancient period some festivals were also counted as publicly but not like as the days of and after industrialization periods.

Festival organizations that value creativity and innovation have been described as having an “entrepreneurial culture” (McGuire, 2003) and are best placed to seize market opportunities and generate added value (Getz et al., 2010). The festival organization value chain represents the introduction of a series of knowledge sourcing and creative decisions being translated into the process of production of the festival. The beginning of this process is to examine the festival’s own attributes, management processes, and structure and market conditions.

In terms of Management there be a systematic managerial process which has been common practices of four functions: planning, organizing, leading and controlling, are still widely accepted. Management process is known as a systematic way of doing things. It is referred as a skills, engagement in certain interrelated activities in order to gain their expected goals. (James A. F. Stoner, Freeman, Gilbart Jr., Review of festival motivation literature

Recent recognition that special events are one of the fastest growing tourism businesses has prompted researchers to explore the motivations of festival visitors (Table 1). For example, Uysal, Gahan, and Martin (1993) identified visitors’ motivations for attending a county Corn Festival in South Carolina. Twenty-four motivation items were factor analyzed and five dimensions of motivation emerged: ‘escape’, ‘excitement/thrills’, ‘event novelty’, ‘socialization’ and ‘family togetherness’. No statistically significant differences were found when motivational factors were compared according to demographic variables. As expected, the results of the study did show that the motivation of family togetherness was stronger among married people than singles. It was also found that older people tended to place more importance on the ‘event novelty’ than other age groups. Mohr, Backman, Gahan, and Backman (1993) explored festival motivations for those attending a Freedom Weekend Aloft (a hot air balloon festival) in Greenville, South Carolina. Twenty-three motivational items were selected and factor analysis delineated five dimensions of motivation: ‘socialization’, ‘family togetherness’, ‘excitement/uniqueness’, ‘escape’, and ‘event novelty’. First and repeat festival visitors were found to be significantly different with respect to the two factors of excitement and novelty. Satisfaction levels were also found to be significantly different between first and repeat visitors. Repeat visitors appeared to have a higher satisfaction than first visitors. However, no significant differences were found in motivation factors with regard to demographic variables. Backman, Backman, Uysal, and Sunshine (1995) explored travelers’ motivations for attending festivals, special events or exhibitions using data from the 1985 Pleasure Travel Market Survey. Twelve motivational items were factor analyzed, resulting in five dimensions of motivation: ‘excitement’, ‘external’, ‘family’, ‘socializing’ and ‘relaxation’. Differences in motivational factors according to demographic variables were tested, and some of them were reported to be statistically different. For instance, the ‘excitement’ factor was found to be significantly different according to age and marital status; the ‘external’ factor according to age; the ‘family’ factor according to marital status; the ‘socializing’ factor according to income; and the ‘relaxation’ factor according to age. Scott (1996) compared visitors’ motivation with respect to three festivals (Bug Fest, the Holiday Lights Festival and the Maple Sugaring Festival) organized by Cleveland Metroparks in Northeast Ohio. Twenty-five

motivational items were factor analyzed to six dimensions: ‘nature appreciation’, ‘event excitement’, ‘sociability’, ‘family togetherness’, ‘curiosity’ and ‘escape from routine’. In general, statistically significant differences existed between motivational factors at different types of festivals. The findings imply that motivations sought at one festival were likely to differ from those sought at another festival. Although past visitation was related to four motivation factors, only one factor, ‘curiosity’, was found to be statistically different with respect to firsttime and repeat visitors (po0:01). Formica and Uysal (1996) compared festival motivations of residents and non-residents attending the Umbria Jazz Festival in Italy. Again, 23 motivation items were factor analyzed to five dimensions of motivation: ‘excitement and thrills’, ‘socialization’, ‘entertainment’, ‘event novelty’ and ‘family togetherness’. Statistically significant differences were found between the Umbria region and out-of-the-region visitors with respect to two of the five motivation factors: ‘socialization’ and ‘entertainment’. The results reveal that residents tended to be more motivated by the ‘socialization’ factor, while non-residents appeared to be more driven by the ‘entertainment’ factor. Formica and Uysal (1998) also explored festival motivations for attending the Spoleto Festival in Italy. Twenty-three motivation items were factor analyzed and six factor groupings emerged: ‘socialization/entertainment’, ‘event attraction/excitement’, ‘group togetherness’, ‘cultural/historical’, ‘family togetherness’ and ‘site novelty’. Significant differences existed between ‘enthusiasts’ and ‘moderates’ with respect to age, income and marital status. ‘Enthusiasts’ were characterized by older age, high income and marriage, while ‘moderates’ were represented by younger age, low income and single status. In conclusion, it was suggested that future studies should explore characteristics of visitors attending other international cultural festivals. Schneider and Backman (1996) questioned whether equivalent factor structures apply in a culture outside North America. The study examined the applicability of a motivation scale commonly used by festival studies to the Jerash Festival for Culture and Arts in Jordan. The factor analysis of 23 motivation items resulted in five dimensions of motivation: ‘family togetherness/socialization’, ‘social/leisure’, ‘festival attributes’, and escape ’and‘event excitement. Although the order or importance of factors differed from other studies, a similar factor structure appeared in this study. The results indicate that festival motivation scales developed in North America were readily transferable to Arabic festivals, suggesting applicability regardless of cultural boundaries. Jeong and Park (1997) also demonstrated that the motivation (novelty) scale developed in the United States was equally reliable and valid for measuring novelty in South Korea. 2000).

According to Falassi (1987), in the classical cultural-anthropological perspective as: “a sacred or profane time of celebration, marked by special observances.” Festivals feast community values, ideologies, identity and continuity. Probably more mirror of the modern approach, Getz (2005,p. 21), defined them as “themed, public celebrations.” There are enormous forms and differentiations possible, and so the term festival is often misapplied and commercialized, leading to confusion.

It could be altercated that festival management should be no different from that of managing any other form of planned event, but that contention is only true in terms of comprehensive concepts and methods. There are multiple causes why festivals must be viewed differently, beginning with their focus on celebration, while other events are produced for reasons of education, marketing, competition, business, politics, entertainment, fun, and games. This is glamourous core of festival studies, incorporating as it does many cultural and social dimensions of ritual and symbolism, has for generations attracted the interest of sociologists and anthropologists who continue to remain fascinated by evolving roles and meanings within the world of festivity. There is the fact that many festivals are innovated by not-for-profit organizations and government agencies tied to social and cultural policy fields as well as strategic place marketing, tourism and economic development. With so many potential goals to satisfy, and stakeholders to involve, festivals are anyhow unique in the events sector. Indeed, the emphasis was placed on stakeholders in the four-country comparison because of this critical factor. (D. Getz, T. Andersson, J Carlson; 2013)

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