Based case study for the country that adopted and implemented nuclear energy for energy usage and consumption is in country of India. Basically, Nuclear energy sources is the form of high kinetic energy that collides and break by attraction forces between molecules and it’s formed in internal nucleus of an atom and to gain reaction this reaction, one of fission process in nuclear that generating the heat. Mostly the nuclear energy can found in the turbine which connected to a generator that producing electricity that useful to modern lifestyle. Based on a common energy that found in nuclear is a reaction of discharging high kinetic in general form by chain reaction also this reaction commonly happen by fusion reaction or fission reaction. In order to gained constant sources of power supply in electricity, the nuclear energy generation is the only way to produced. Basically, energy sources for nuclear worked as similar based on power plant sources which electrical energy produces by common reaction by reactor which this result outcome of this process produces energy by the chain reaction. Based on the power plant which the heat is created and the process run by combustion method by burning natural gas such as butane, ethane, also other natural gas . According world statistics about 450 reactors of nuclear sources by providing about eleven percentage electrical energy throughout world for industrial consumption. The most popular country of using power output from nuclear are US, Canada, France, Japan, etc. Next, Uranium is a basic fuel that using for generation of power output in most industrial sectors where mined uranium that coded with U-235 that using as source fuel where most of reactors core due to attraction atoms molecule from Uranium can be separated apart easily.Other than that, for a reactor core the neutron plays an important role where the atomic particle lack of electric charge by colliding with the close atoms due to high kinetic energy also causing the particle to split and collide each other that producing nuclear fission. According the nuclear fission, by using Uranium in the thermal reactor that code with U-235 there are millions nuclei that present which tons energy releases where its in a form radiation and with this reaction with the high kinetic molecules gained some energy by electron in the cell nucleus. By gaining higher energy, this process produced heat inside thermal reactor by generating steam by produces electricity.Based on history for sources of energy in nuclear production began in early 1930s , where Enrico Fermi is the physicist who established the first neutron particle that can separate the atoms from radiation element.
This physicist conducted experiment by the chain reaction where it’s succeeded the research project in 1942 at the university of Chicago,United States. So according Enrico Fermi knowledge most researchers followed concept from nuclear chain reaction where founded first founded and generation of electrical from atoms reaction by using experimental breeder reactor 1 in year 1951.
Based on case study for a country that adopted nuclear is in India where this country implement on resources of nuclear profile in India, also (PHWR) which known as pressurized heavy waters reactors. Next the decision according to implements from (PHWR) , the research project in india undertaken due to restricted resources from Uranium element. Also, based on high production of plutonium yield where need to be considered to locate the basic foundation for fast reactors that set up on second stage of reactors. In the year 2002 to 2003 where power plant research from india generated about 3.7 percentage overall sources of electrical where this country focused on improvement on pressurized heavy water reactors to take place in effectively manner. During year 2003, general state legal authorities of india agreed to produced construction of a prototype fast breeder reactor mainly set on the second stage of plant successfully accomplished from a effective program and this country plan for established about 20000MWe of prototype fast breeder reactor in the year of 2020. Moreover, there are several type of reactors that used by this country where one of it is fourteen operational reactors storage which about 2820MWe situated in Rawatbhata, Narora, Kalpakam, Kakrapar, Kaiga, etc. Next, in india the Pressurized heavy water reactors, a design concept of a common reactor vessel that generating heat energy from the central, and also this pressurized water reactors reaction happens when water contains in coolant transport thermal process in heat form to the generator that produces steams which the result of producing electricity that useful in most modern electrical appliance. Nuclear energy in india firstly implemented the PHWR(pressurized heavy water reactors) in the year of 1964 by constructing the major single reactor that contains about 200MWe range and this reactor located at Rawatbhhata in Rajasthan state of india. Furthermore, there is other alternative reactor to replace the PHWR for example douglas point reactor.
Basically, this douglas point reactor firstly established in Canada and this reactor is one of the huge condenser steam and its also a prototype reactor that useful for evolution in advance reactor process. From 1966 this douglas prototype reactor well maintained and operated steadily in india when this country agreed to launch the operation process and signed an agreement with Canada to construct the second large douglas point reactor near Rawatbhata. These reactor not only constructed in Rawatbhata but also in other states of india which is nea Kalpakkam. Based on the douglas reactor, where it contains enormous design of dousing tank that exchanged with other design which is suppression of pool which situated at bottom of building. Next, the submarine tunnel which build in india to overcome thes sea water by channeling in power output nuclear process. Besides that, india nuclear process also plays vital role by building the NAPS(Narora) that need overcome the concerns on safety requirement, maintenance,enhancing the reactor constructability and also proving design efficiency. Most technological evolution country of power plant of nuclear based advanced country where plant only established, contributed by production industry which highly specify certain research such petrochemical process. However, india already reached targeted on state of maturity and also continues advance researching in farther. Example of nuclear evolution from country india there are still some ways for considered further improved study of power plant energy , by developing new era for innovative improvement includes alternative ways to get sources of electrical, optimizing cost from nuclear reactor build up where developing other alternate reactor process.
In addition New system reactor based in india which has been successfully verified by government of india for IGCAR( Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic research) and this technological innovation achieved about 500MWe Fast Breeder Reactor also basic builded reactor pointed a second stage nuclear process programmed according to fast breeder reactors system. Next, further development were made to overcome the programme of breeder reactor which small sector that called as BHAVINI( Bhariya Nabhikiya Vidut Nigam) that specialist in technical expertise that was conducted in year 2003.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
Basically, power plant design for nuclear system there are several processes where tons of energy emitted to the environment and based on energy in nuclear reaction there are pros and cons for this energy sources. By referring to statistic reports from M.K. Hubbert ( fossil Fuel, Nuclear energy sources) where energy that produce by reaction on nuclear where the effects on green house is much lesser compare from other kind non renewable sources for example petroleum fossil fuel that produce harmful gases by undergoes combustion processes. The impact on green house effect towards eco system by energy of nuclear where much lesser due to energy from nuclear don’t release toxic harmful gases like carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide. Next, expenses from Uranium nuclear sources of energy where this cost lesser to produce high amount kinetic energy reaction needed to generate electrical , or major electrical supply for industrial sectors when comparing alike energy produced from coal. Next, advantage based on reliability power plant in nuclear can operates steadily with longer period time and this nuclear energy have longer lifespan that can generates electrical energy with just single plant reactor when compared to different energy sources. By using energy from nuclear there are no adverse impacts to the land and any aquatic ecosystem due to electrical sources only operates efficiently by close quarters. . Other major advantages by using nuclear energy sources is result from higher output power production and this can be possible when slight amount of uranium can produce enough electrical energy between the consumers. Furthermore, power of nuclear energy also high cost saving , high energy saving , also eco-friendly based to environment. From the economic impacts on energy of nuclear where it plays vital role by promoting new job to the nuclear engineering graduates by developing new plant in near future. By referring to fossil fuel that generate energy, nuclear energy basically proven more proficient due to the higher amount energy density contains. Other issues for an example fossil fuel can influence environmental pollution due to the high carbon contains as an example coal which consist of sulfur that also harmful to humans health. Besides that, other advantage from nuclear energy is also in wide range quantity energy that releases when comparing to other energy like wind energy.
In addition, there are still some disadvantages of nuclear energy that can cause some health risk when human contact with waste of radioactive that result high radiation. Based on wastage power plant has also been life threat to the natural ecosystem where high radiation exposure can causes radiation sickness and when the certain industrial sectors doesn’t obey the waste removal of radioactive elements to the environment, this can caused severe water pollution , also if any leakage of Uranium to the environment can contaminated the nature and aquatic eco-system too. Next, basically Uranium is extremely unstable and its potentially hazardous that extracted by Raw material that cause severe radiation exposure if this Uranium doesn’t handle properly . Other than that, nuclear energy reactors that failed to generated energy due to some human error still existing, which this causes surrounding area of power plant nuclear from polluting and not safer as a prolong abandoned. Moreover, during process of nuclear power generation, where more waste from radioactive elements from industrial sectors released where this caused for some private individual used the energy of nuclear in form of weapon production to route war in future which impact chaos.
The are still some accidents occurred from nuclear which it’s possible due to improper generation of nuclear reaction energy without considering some protection manners that can pose serious health effects on people lives or even caused fatal. As an example accidents happens in nuclear based is in Fukushima in Japan which cause explosion in power plant reactor that caused high environment impact. Due to limited quantity stocks Uranium availability sources in world where this highly cost and the amount of waste releases causes environment pollution. As, a conclusion to substitute generation energy from fossil fuel, energy of a nuclear is only efficient technology that overcome the environmental impacts where its also highly possible to produces carbon-free reasonable electrical sources energy without impacting the eco-system.
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5. H.j. Bhabha, Presidential Address, International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic energy, Geneva, August 1955.