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Alzheimer Disease: Risk Factor, Stages, Treatment

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Alzheimer disease is a intelligence disease in which our understanding cells break down to connect all other feel difficulty speaking and cause confusion when a task performed by the patient because for the reason that a greater quantity of protein which is rubbery and twisted protein offer between the intellect cells as a result cells fails to convey message. This disease occur step by step at early stage doctor can not diagnose the disease. Almost at fourth sage this disease diagnosed completely. In this disease patient become unconscious from their environment. Stress, high sugar level, obesity, inheritance and less education are major factor of Alzheimer’s disease. Today many people suffering in this disease but there is no specific diagnose of this disease but some tests like PET, CT scanner, MMSE and MRI test can diagnose. Some lab and blood test also can diagnose it. There is no treatment of Alzheimer’s disease but some drugs like cholinesterase and Nemantine are used for the treatment of this disease. Some nutrients and regular exercise also play important role in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

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Alzheimer’s disease is a mind disease in which section downfall suggest itself which origin defeat of memory, hurdle decision the totally word, mood changes, endure in bewilderment once performing arts ordinary errand and mind repetitive Alzheimer’s disease is the on the whole everyday bring about of dementia a cluster of common sense disorders that foundation the shortfall of intellectual and group skills in elderly frequent . In intelligence it questionnaire plaques and tangles which instigate to remembrance defeat. ( Ahmed A et al 2013) physician Alois Alzheimer discover advertisement while he was examine for a lengthy time a female serene Auguste D,who were have a medical condition in , catnap disorders, turbulence of memory, aggressiveness, crying, and progressive confusion. (Reger B 2002).

He set up dense deposits around her nerve cells. Alzheimer, who was a German neurologist and psychiatrist, noticed abnormal deposits in the reason of a 51-year from the past female who had dementia. It was presently established that patients with Alzheimer’s disease a lot contain common sense abnormalities called plaques and tangles( Hippius H and Neundörfer G,2003). Plaques and tangles which is called beta amylod and tau smash up the transfer between nerve cells and intellect fraction mutilation as a result mind be capable of not function customary behave such as idea, eating, sitting, talking and around other functions which container not typically perform.(Morae A H C et al,2013) at the moment more than 25 million community are misery in Alzheimer disease in earth and 4.6 million nation enlarge in all year( Ahmed A et al 2013). Pakistan is a on the rise country it is estimated that in 2050, Pakistan will develop into the third a good number densely inhabited country in the world( Khan Q,2017). In Pakistan strengthen in living hope the fee of Alzheimer disease is too better. In Pakistan nearby is no definite records acquaint with of Alzheimer disease appointed to be short of explore and dwell in are be ill with in this disease payable to ;lack of awareness. To dominate this disease certain influential steps be able to be taken( Seetlani NK,2016).

The individual which receive Alzheimer disease give birth to exceedingly significant in run to plaques and tangles. Plaques is the cluster from of protein which come into being interim between faction and tangles is any more twisted protein which arise inside cells (Farley P,2013).when a self is further aged at that time the concentration of plaques and tangles is better. They deter the transfer between nerve compartment and in the answer they initiate recollection defeat, problem to act upon every day behavior and the like (Hardy J 2006). understanding is calm of 100 billion nerve booth and every nerve cubicle is joined to a new nerve cabal for e-mail, for belief and perform around other perform as soon as these plaques and tangles fill in they dent the nerve chamber these mutilation happen in hippocampus in reason job which is resonsible for accepted wisdom and bring about Alzheimer disease .(Agdeppa ED,Kepe V,Liu j et al 2001).

Risk factor of Alzheimer disease

There are many factor which cause Alzheimer disease such as A history of diabetes, Depression smoking, obesity, Family history and less Education. Chen ST et al( 2014).

Diabetes

Type II diabetes is chief consequence dynamic for Alzheimer disease as it outcome Aβ stock in intellect compartment and not bright to take advantage of insulin in the amount or insulin not right purpose in association if a qualities is overweight every these situation happen ( Alford S et al 2017).and cells not comeback to insulin hence glucose direct towards multiplication in better part which bring about increase blood pressur and in due course set off Alzheimer disease.( Sultana N, 2011)

Smoking

Smoking is too grounds diabetes and countless other disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease( Anstey k j, 2007). Smokers take part in 45% are in take a chance to initiate dementia as compared to non smokers. Ex-smoker ( a big cheese who was clever to relinquish smoking) know how to bring down the result of Alzheimer disease by not smoking. Cigarette smoke/smoking is connected with billboard neuropathology in preclinical models and humans( Durazzo.C.T 2014). Cigarette smoke tolerate pollutant data which encourage oxidative stress and inflammation, which give birth to equally been connected to increasing of Alzheimer’s disease. The human being which gasp the cigarette Their inner system is in addition wake up and these being in addition in chance to instigate in Alzheimer disease ( Anstey k j, 2007).

Depression

Depression caused 20 -40% associates effected in Alzheimer disease. Higher hazard of depression are originate in female as compared to gentleman therefore female are extra effected in Alzheimer disease. Those event which cause depression such as lack of social support in which society can support the person, Stressful life events such as, economic stress in which they get not sufficient salary to fulfill their desire, Isolation and loneliness. These are every single one reason which source depression and in due course affect the Alzheimer disease(Usman S et al 2010 ). Depression end product the understanding of group which are additional aged and be inflicted with extra endanger to grow Alzheimer disease. (Ownby R L.et al .2006).

Obesity

Obesity or overweight is also a risk factor of Alzheimer disease because Obesity or overweight cause to increase blood pressure and increase in blood pressure cause Alzheimer disease.Higher body mass index measure the obesity and overweight in people .when a person are obesity or overweight so they have higher blood pressure and have more risk to develop diabetes and we know that diabetes cause Alzheimer disease( Usman S et al, 2010 ).

Family history

Parents contain apolipoprotein on DNA add up to 9 .it own two outline ApoE -e2 and ApoE_e3 mutually parents hand over one DNA to offspring if correct to metamorphosis one parents move both DNA to offspring after that they affect Alzheimer disease Apolipoprotein E is a set of proteins caught up in the metabolism of fats in the lion’s share (Roses AD,1996). ApoE is cholesterol and fat mover in the understanding at that moment cholesterol and fat side by side build up in federation chubbiness or heavy caused. So in this mode they origin Alzheimer disease. The qualities which hold APOE-e4 RNA give rise to additional stake to cultivate Alzheimer disease as compared to individuals which complete not hold this gene( Caselli, J.R 2013).

Education

Less Education also a risk factor of Alzheimer disease .Mostly run the risk of are seen in fewer educated people (Sharp E S,and Gatz M 2011)who contain not awareness of this disease and. People which are mentally operating are not be diagnosed with in Alzheimer disease as compared to individuals which are not mentally active. Higher teaching flat as a pancake create synaptic bond in intellect and compete key job in the formation of memory. These association get into a neural networks as one neuron link to an alternative neuron. If this disease are advancement in carcass and neuron injure occur(Usman S et al 2010).

Stages of Alzheimer disease

Stage 1: Normal outward behavior

In this point a character is stay put practically average and not demonstrate any symptoms of Alzheimer disease. No health professions shows the symptoms of Alzheimer disease. In this phase human being put on common perform in day after day life. For the stage any gathering of day they not need to other person for help. (Albert M 1994).

Stage 2: Very mild cognitive decline

In exact mild cognitive decline the boards round about little stretch of symptoms come out and In this period common mood changes crop up but remedial examination furthermore complete not reveal the Alzheimer disease person suffer in short term memory loss ,such as when they talk to other they forget some words what they want to say others and also they forget where they kept a thing .But in this stage with the passage of time they remember all the things and remain normal, perform their function normally. Also in this stage not diagnosed this disease. People with early Alzheimer disease can face difficulties to perform function such as planning, organization skill to solve a problem a handle a difficult situation but they remain independent to other not need to help other( Albert MS, Heller HS, Milberg W. 1988).

Stage 3: Mild cognitive decline

It is early stage of diagnosed in which Alzheimer disease can be detected but it is a difficult stage to detect the Alzheimer disease ,in this stage symptoms can be appear but not Alzheimer disease diagnosed in all patients but only some patients (Shahmiri, E.et al 2017). Alzheimer disease can be detected. In this stage problem of memory loss occur not judge to anything( Wattmo C et al 2016). When a person read something they forget that what I read, the person repeat same question again and again. The person face many difficulty when make a plan and sometime they forget own name when they in front of some new people or in meeting because they are confused and not face to new people. And in this stage family member and friend can notice all these things .In this stage doctor can detect Alzheimer disease, PET scan and other test can detect the Alzheimer disease.( Albert M. 1994)

Stage 4: Moderate cognitive decline

It is a Mild or early stage of Alzheimer disease. In this stage a person have clear sign and symptoms of Alzheimer disease because in this stage every one can notice the sign and symptoms and in this stage Alzheimer disease can easily detected by PET scan test. In this stage a person have a fear that society select him or not in this environment(fear of rejection), lack of responsiveness in which they can not response to any problem, loss the intellectual ability in which they can not solve simple question or answer simple questions (Albert M 1994). They find difficulty when they perform normal or daily routine task, and also they sometime forget its own history and they did not who is he, what’s its name? All these symptoms appear in this stage, they face a lot of problem in their life and doctor easily detect Alzheimer disease at this stage( Wattmo C et al 2016).

Stage 5: Moderate severe cognitive decline

It is a middle stage of Alzheimer disease. A person may no longer be able to carry out normal day-to-day activities such as dressing or bathing. In this stage a person became confused not know where they are and what day it is? They need to help other to choose the dress according to seasion (Tarawneh R and Holtzman D.M,2012).The person are further suffer in memory loss problem ,mental activity and also they loss the ability to solve any problem they are not able to solve a problem and not perform their daily life function. In everyfield of life they face problem because they not show normal behavior. (Suthers K,2003)

Stage 6: Very severe cognitive decline

It is severe or late stage Alzheimer disease. In this stage the person is totally unable to response its environment because it is last stage of Alzheimer disease. The person need help to response the environmental changes and also need help to perform daily activity such as eating, drinking and sitting etc. They may lose the ability to speak, walk or smile without help. They need to a nurse for care who help the patients in eatin, drinkin and sitting. They loss speaking ability their sentence or short they explain any problem in one word. These stage are very serious stage for that person(Tarawneh R and Holtzman D.M,2012).

Diagnose of Alzheimer disease

Alzheimer’s disease can diagnose through family interviews, by knowing the history of the patient, patient physical examinations and some neuroimaging tests .Measuring of biomarkers also play important role in diagnose of Alzheimer’s disease. (Feldman H.H et al,2008).

Influence/role of biomarkers

Biomarkers play an important role as an indicator in measuring and evaluating the bilogical process And pharmacological responses(Colburn et. Al,2000). Biomarkers play an important role in diagnose of Alzheimer’s disease also(Blennow, 2010)

Neuropsychological tests: Neuropsychological tests used for the diagnose of MCI and dementia disease. In recent research neuropsychological tests use for the diagnose of MCI . (Albert et al,2011). depend upon four cognitive domains functions/ attention, memory, language and visuospatial functions. (Gorelick et.al,2011). Neuropsychological tests plus recreation an essential character in the cognitive impairments of an peculiar (Albert et.al,2011).

MRI test: Magnetic resonance imaging test is most popular test in early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. (Wolz.R et.al,2011). In MRI test strong radioactive waves and magnets are use to interpret the detail view or for getting the detail image of the brain so that disease can diagnose. For the MRI test part of the medial temporal lobe is used because it is the best discriminating MIR measure. (Richard.E et.al 2012). It can give the map of neural activities which is helpful for the diagnose of Alzheimer’s disease. (Machulda et.al,2003)

CT scanner: CT scan is a computerized tomography in which series of x- rays bombard on the brain form different Angeles for taken a image of the brain. It is helpful for the diagnose of Alzheimer’s disease. (Wattijes et.al,2009)

MMSE: In this test different questions are asked by the patient which are related his/her previous life including medical history. The purpose of this test to recall the name and functions which patient performed in his early life. (Feldman .H.H et.al,2008)

PET test: In this test a radioactive substance add in the body which is called the tracer which detect the substances in the body. The common type of PET is the fuorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scan which detect the glucose metabolism because decline level of glucose metabolism cause the Alzheimer’s disease. (Small et .al,2008). It also detect the amloyed proteins which are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. (Albert.M et .al,2011)

Treatment

There is no specific treatment of Alzheimer’s disease but some precautions are required from preventing of Alzheimer disease like exercise ,nutrients and some drugs. Cholinesterase,galantamine and Memantine drugs are used for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. (Schneider.S.L et .al,2013). Cholinesterase and Memantine: These both drugs are benificial for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (Farrimond.E.Let.al,2012). These drugs provide communication between cell to cell and patient may have some awareness. (Danysz.W et al 2013).

Nutrients: Food also play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Some nutrients like A protien, Beta carotene play important role in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. If these nutrients decrease then Alzheimer’s disease occur. Some other fats and carbohydrates also required. (Hu.N et .al,2013). Some other nutrients like dietary fats, fatty acids, omega-3fatty acid and vitamins B (2,3,5,6,12) required. (George.R.D et.al,2009).

Alzheimer disease is a brain disease which occur in elderly people if a person is more aged then the risk factor of this disease is very severe. Different test used to diagnose the Alzheimer disease. There is no specific treatment of Alzheimer disease but use of proper nutrition and exercise can control the Alzheimer disease and keep the brain healthy. In Pakistan and all over the world there is no treatment of Alzheimer’s disease but a few drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors and meantime be able to avoid to maintain symptoms from worsening, or in a not many cases, county show particular trivial upgrading as well. Other drugs for care of behavioral and mood disorders (such as depression and insomnia) may furthermore be prescribed. Selected drugs, however, own face personal property such as nausea, constipation and unstable sleep.

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