Overview of Mechanisms and Side Effects of Alzheimer Drug Treatment

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The foremost common shapes of degenerative dementia are Alzheimer which constitute roughly 60-70% of cases. (Emilien, le Durlach: Lloyd, Winblad: Gauthier, Jean-Marie, 2004, p. xix). Alzheimer's is a disease that causes problems with memory, thinking and behaviour. And it happens generally to people over 65. The symptoms get worse through time and at some stage, the patient will be unable to do daily tasks. There is no cure that has been discovered for Alzheimer disease until now. But there is some treatment that can help the patient like activity and behaviour treatment. And the most effective or common treatment is the drug which uses for specific symptoms and each drug has a specific mechanism and side effects.

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Drugs can slow down or improve some symptoms and maintain mental and emotional health. The symptoms of Alzheimer can develop gradually. And, it is arranged into three stages that are early stage, moderate middle stage and severe late stage. In the United Kingdom, fifty-five per cent of people residing with dementia are in the mild level, thirty-second per cent are within the moderate stage and thirteen per cent are in the serious stage. (prince, M et al, 2014). Also, the medication is used for a specific stage. First the medication for mild to the moderate stage which includes a problem in remembering names, behaviour and mood change, the risk of becoming lost, bewilderment about the place they are and repetitive behaviours like hand-wringing or tissue shredding. Cholinesterase inhibitors are affirmed by the FDA to deal with the symptoms of slight to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include Aricept® (donepezil), Exelon® (rivastigmine) and Razadyne® (galantamine). Second the medication for moderate to serve the stage which includes memory loss advance, losing the ability to walk, smile and sit, the brain will be incapable to tell the body what to do like the patient may go to the toilet and forgot what to do. Cholinesterase inhibitors are affirmed by the FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION to treat the symptoms of moderate to serve a stage include Nazario® (memantine and donepezil) and Namenda® (memantine). Third, the medication for all the stages includes Aricept® (donepezil) and Exelon® (rivastigmine).

Each type of drug has a specific mechanism. And these drugs don’t work for everyone. Also, it doesn’t stop the progress of Alzheimer, but it slows down the progress of some symptoms. All cholinesterase inhibitors work similarly, but one might suit a certain person better than another. There is a chemical substance in the brain called Acetylcholine which is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction. The people with Alzheimer disease have a low level of acetylcholine Donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine all are drugs that stop enzyme called acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine in the brain. Because of this, the level of acetylcholine will increase which lead to increase the communication between nerve cells. This may relieve some symptoms and slow the progress of the disease. Also, Doctors must keep an eye on the patient when he/she starts drugs. Generally, the doctor starts from a low dose and increases it through time.

All the medication have a possible side effect which can be classified into a common side effect which is the loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. A rare side effect which if it happens the patient should see the doctor immediately is Vomiting blood or substance that looks like coffee grounds, Seizures or Bloody or black, tarry stool sand Severe stomach pain. And none of this medication causes addictive. Relying on which medication, they take, about 1 to a few out of 10 human beings, feel nauseous or vomit. ' (medications for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, 2017, p. 1). Also, there are some steps can be done to avoid or reduce the side effect like increasing the dose slowly, taking drugs after food and it will disappear if medication stopped. Doses are different for each medication.

Usually, Alzheimer patient starts with a low dose. Donepezil is taken once a day usually at bedtime. The treatment starts with 5mg in a day. After a while, the doctor will increase the until 10mg which the licensed dose in a day is. Rivastigmine is available as capsules or a solution to drink also as patches for those who suffer from taking medication by is taken twice a day with lunch and dinner meal. The treatment starts with 3mg a day. Then the dose will be increased until 12mg of oral rivastigmine which the maximum daily licensed dose. Galantamine is made in different forms like oral solution and tablets. The treatment starts with 8mg each day for four weeks. The maximum licensed daily dose is 24mg. Memantine is available in two forms as tablets and oral drops. The treatment starts with 5mg a day. And the maximum licensed is 20mg. Also, generally the patient with

Alzheimer disease need help to take their medication. Also, you can leave a note or call them if they live alone. And Some pillboxes come with alarms that remind a person to take the medicine. If the Alzheimer gets worse, you must give the medicines to him or her.

In the end, nowadays the most reliable treatment is the drug, and every type has a specific side effect, mechanism and uses. The scientific uses of Alzheimer drugs are divided according to the level into medication that uses for slight to a mild stage, capsules use for slight to the excessive level and capsules use for all of the ranges. also, each drug has its own mechanism like preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine inside the brain, Blocks the toxic outcomes related to extra glutamate and regulates glutamate activation and stimulates nicotinic receptors to launch extra acetylcholine inside the brain. In addition, side effect classified into common and rare effect. Also, Procedures that can be used to avoid the side effect which can be dangerous sometimes. Currently, there, are many types of research is done to discover a new treatment and the scientist effort still going on.

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