In this dissertation, to sense glucose levels in individuals, a number of design technologies have existed. The main object is to design a highly selective and sensitive device for glucose sensing. With the prime focus on a blood glucose sensor and work did so far in this particular field along with gaps of the study presented here
Papa et al.  proposed a highly sensitive glucose detection method through functionalized carbon nanotube buckypaper as a free-standing electrode in an electrochemical biosensor. In order to oxidize glucose resulting in a measurable current/voltage signal output of the biosensor, the glucose oxidase was immobilized onto a number of buckypaper samples. It was concluded that buckypaper electrodes can be used to fabricate glucose sensing strips in a more commercial way than the currently available strips.
Berisha et al.  anticipated the use of Tin (IV) oxide as a bulk mediator in carbon paste and carbon ink screen-printed electrodes to improvise the performance of the carbon electrodes by comparing unmodified electrodes for the detection of hydrogen peroxide, From modified carbon paste electrode a new glucose biosensor was developed and coated with glucose oxidase captured in Nafion was investigated with a flow injection system. The amperometric response of the biosensor exhibited good linearity up to 200 mg/L with a detection limit (3σ) of 6.8 mg/L.
Nazoki et al.  proposed high-quality ZnO nanorods using zinc nitrate (Zn (NO3)2) and hexamethylene-tetramine ((CH2)6N4) grown on different substrates. The GaN substrates grown with high-quality ZnO nanorods by the hydrothermal growth technique had demonstrated the potential application as a glucose sensor with-out oxidase. For the glucose concentrations, good linearity and high sensitivity were attained of 0.5 – 30 mM in the calibration curve. The calibration curve was not influenced by the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), which are also included in human blood and the estimation of glucose concentrations in human blood could cause interference.
Kamaldeep et al.  established that the nanostructured Zinc oxide (ZnO) was intrinsically electro-catalytic by nature and thus applied the same for the construction of biosensors. The nanoparticles were first prepared from metal oxide and then those were joined with glucose oxidase (GOx). The current reaction of ZnO nanoparticles containing the enzymes electrode increase from 0.78 to 22 μAcm-2 in 10 mM solution of glucose. The optimal circumstances for active current response were pH, working potential and temperature and average life span.
Lee et al.  to deposit a high-quality intrinsic ZnO thin films and intrinsic ZnO nanorods as a vapor cooling condensation system for sensing the membrane of extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET) glucose biosensors. The sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors with passivated ZnO nanorods was significantly enhanced to 20.33 μAmM−1cm−2.
Qiua et al.  fabricated a novel amperometric glucose biosensor in situ incorporating glucose oxidase (GOx) within the sol-gel silica film on a Prussian blue (PB) modified electrode. The technique was simple and controllable, which shared the merits in situ immobilizing biomolecules in sol-gel silica film by electrochemical method and the synergic catalyst properties of PB and GOx molecules. Time responsePatel et al.  fabricated an electro-enzymatic glucose sensor using a novel self-aligned and hybrid polymer process. The self-aligned production process was carried out using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a process substrate material, SU-8 as sensor structural material, and gold as an electrode material. The thickness of the sensors was stately between 166.15 and 210.15 μM.
Yaoyin Li et al.  Fe1_x NixS2 exhibited excellent presentation for detection of enzymeless glucose. The Fe1_xNixS2 linear range was equivalent with that of noble metals. The linear range of Fe1_xNixS2 was wider than that of transition metal oxides. The linear range of Fe1_xNixS2 was wider than that of transition metal sulfides. The sensitivity of Fe0.7Ni0.3S2 is higher sensitivity than that of noble.
Lele Ju et al.  investigated the enzymeless Amperometric Glucose Sensor Based on Copper Nanowires Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide, here synthesized simple one-step wet-chemical synthetic process consisting Nanocomposite one-dimensional copper nanowires and two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide Nanosheets (CuNWs/rGO) The CuNWs/rGO hybrids exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation due to the superior conductivity along one-dimensional direction and catalytic activity of Cu NWs and rapid electron transfer in the two-dimensional rGO sheets. It shows A wide linear range up to 11 mM, high sensitivity (1625 μA / mM-cm-2), low detection limit (0.2 mM) and fast response ( Dita Arifa Nurani et al.  investigated on Electrodeposited Copper on Carbon Paste Electrode (Cu/CPE) at constant potentials. The non-enzymatic glucose sensor has much attention due to their applications in glucose monitoring. The electrodeposition of Cu is varied, i.e. the Electrodepositing time 60s, 120s, and 180s and potential reduction -0.166 V, -0.266 V and -0.366 V. The working electrodes in sensing glucose was investigated. The Cu/CPE which is used -0.366V potential reduction and 120s electrodeposition time show the best performance. The amperometric response current in concentration range 1.6-62.5 mM of glucose gives the good linearity R² = 0.9988, low detection limit 0.6728 mM and high sensitivity 1183.59.
Shutao Wang et al.  proposed non-enzymatic glucose sensors through two dimensional NiO. NiO Nanosheets were hydrothermally synthesized and loaded on the glassy carbon electrode. NiO Nanosheets showed a large detection range and high sensitivity for glucose. NiO Nanosheets have been effectively synthesized via a facial hydrothermal route and it was established an excellent catalyst for enzymeless glucose sensor presentation.
Zhenzhen Li et al.  proposed that three-dimensional copper foam anodized by copper oxide based on Sensitive electrochemical nonenzymatic glucose sensing. CF supplies high surface area due to its single three-dimensional porous foam structure and resulting high sensitivity for glucose detection. The glucose concentration in human serum was measured to be 4.96 ± 0.06 mM, and the glucose concentration in saliva was also estimated to be 0.91 ± 0.04 mM, the Copper-oxide nanowire and copper foam owned the possibility for noninvasive glucose detection, for detecting glucose it results in high sensitivity. The CuO NWs/CF existing reliable selectivity, good repeatability, reproducibility, and stability
Rafiq Ahmad et al.  Inkjet-printed copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on silver electrodes were used to fabricate the nonenzymatic glucose biosensor. Highly Efficient Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on CuO Modified electrode by using Vertically-Grown ZnO Nanorods. It challenges to attach nanostructures on to the electrode surface, high surface area, physiochemical features for promising sensing applications. The electrodes show high sensitivity (2961.7 μA mM-1cm-2), and its linear range is up to 8.45 mM, the low limit of detection is (0.40 μM), and short response time is ( Sudheesh K. Shukla et al.  proposed that Optical fiber-based non-enzymatic glucose sensing over Cu2+-doped polyaniline (PANI) hybrid polymer matrix coated on a glass rod. It has been prepared for direct oxidation of glucose on Cu+2/PANI hybrid matrix for non-enzymatic glucose. The sensor works well in a linear range of 50 mg/dL–200 mg/dL with a response time of 15 s.
N. Sattarahmady et al.  proposed that a non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for glucose based on cobalt oxide Nanoparticles. The cobalt nanoparticle –modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by potential cycling containing titrate in a pH controlled solutions and the electrocatalytic oxidation occurs in alkaline media and the kinetics was developed. In the cyclic voltammetry, the cobalt oxide of glucose is increased and decreased in the corresponding cathodic current. As per the results, an efficient nonenzymatic glucose sensor of glucose was developed. The linear range is 0.7–60 µM, detection limit 0.15 µM and sensitivity of 2515.35 μA mM-1cm-2 in a batch system and a linear range of 1.3–50 µM, a limit of detection of 0.14 µM and sensitivity of 3240.25 μA mM-1cm-2in the flow system.
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