If effective communication is to take place it is important to apply two main theories, these are Tuckman’s theory (1965) and Michael Argyles (1975). Both these theories have pro’s and con’s. Both these theories focus on ways to provide information, receiving and understanding and building on relationships.
Tuckman’s theory of communication, in 1965 Bruce Tuckman had started a group development model to present how well he believed people connected with each other, he looked at four stages in which he believed how people came together, the first stage of this cycle is Forming Tuckman viewed this as the introduction stage, where a group of professionals come together as a team everyone would have a group discussion, getting to know one another, exchanging information etc. Tuckman believed that people built a connection on how people viewed each other such as connecting with people based on their appearance, having similar past experience, and mutual friends , having a topic in which both individuals are interested In order to build a cordial relationship and stronger connection between the group such as “Hi! I like your hair color I’ve always wanted to try it” ”aw thank you…” etc. This is also the stage where everyone is nice to each other and presenting themselves in a positive perspective. But on the other hand this can be a disadvantage people may not like this idea or like the fact they’ve come across new faces and it can come to terms where the person may not want to work with a certain people which can proceed to prejudice, not wanting to get to know a person because of their race, color or religion and could become problematic. For example, two Muslims individuals have been introduced to a GP practice as an assistant nurse, and in a meeting they’ve been assigned to two different doctors who are of another race they begin to chat with one another whilst glaring at the two new staffs.
Storming is the second stage of a team development in which is important when it comes to growing as a team, it’s about how everyone works together, but along the way they’ll be clashes and disagreements which can also result too the group having closer or broken relationships in which it may never be mended and be stuck in the storming stage, for example, overall it is necessary that there is someone that is in charge in order for them to overcome the storming and able to resolve the conflicts and tension in which they may be able to take the group into the next stages of the Tuckman team development theory.
In a group there is always a person/leader in which they are able to find a solution to the problem in order for a situation to be solved this is called moving into the Norming stage, it’s also where the team should move forward in order to agree on some rules so that they’re able to operate, furthermore it’s where the member in the group are able to solve their differences and respect each other; for example:
- Having conversations and discussions independently
- Better working relationships, supporting and trusting each other
- Having the ability to offer and accept constructive criticism although it may be prolonged because of the forming and storming stage, but since people in the group are still trying to get to know one another.
Performing is the fourth and final stage where the team are able to act on the norming stage so that everything can proceed accordingly. Tuckman also believed that this is the part where everyone should be able to trust each other and communicate effectively amongst each other so that decisions are being handled properly. Teams that perform at a high-level are able to function as a unit and find effective working strategies without inappropriate conflict. Tuckman also thought that the performing stage behavior should include:
Members of the team having the ability to prevent clashes and work through issues
Everyone demonstrates a great working relationships and support for each other.
Tuckman had suggested that care professionals should be able to understand the group interactions as he felt that all stages are necessary in a care setting. He felt that colleagues should be a team so that their able to grow and face challenges in order to overcome it and solve the problem and in end to help deliver the work.
The second communication theory involved the communication cycle which was published by Michael Argyle, Argyle had made improvements to the communication cycle in 1972. In the communication cycle involved 6 stages in which he worked when communicating to an individual. The six stages are:
- The idea
- Message coded
- Message sent
- Message received
- Message decoded/feedback
- Message understood.
The first stage of the cycle is thinking of the idea so that the person that you are talking to understands what you are trying to say. It’s where you think of the idea/suggestion about a subject that you want to talk about. For example, a doctor is trying to conceive a message to a married couple regarding their child, the doctor would then try to figure out how to express the thoughts he has on the baby. This would then carry on to the second stage of the cycle which is coding the message, this is when you’ve know what to talk about and then deciding on how you going to say what you want to say, for example the couples baby is well and healthy, the doctor would say this to the couple in an ecstatic way so that the new parents don’t have to worry.
The third stage of Argyle communication cycle would be the message being sent, this part of the cycle would be where the person has spoken/sent the message to the person you are talking too, in which the attitude/tone of voice should reflect on what you are saying to the other individual, for example, “the baby is big and healthy, there are no complications for you to worry about!” the couple would have received and listen to the message that the doctor has told them in which this would be the fourth stage of the cycle. The message decoded/feedback is the fifth stage of Argyles cycle, which is where the person you are talking too has thought about what you’ve said an is processing the way you’ve said to them, they can also judge by the way the person’s body language and facial expression in order to know if the message is good or bad and is ready to respond; one the doctor has said there piece the coupe can now decode the message and respond happily. The final stage of the communication cycle is making sure that the individual has understood the message, once you’ve sent the message and the other person you are talking has received the message, it’s important that the person you’ve sent/said the message has understood the message, it’s time for them to respond in which the cycle starts all over again, but then the cycle begins from the other person you’ve started the conversation with. The married couple would then respond to the doctor “that’s nice to hear doctor, thank you for checking our baby but…” the conversation between the three will go through the six stages again until they see each other for their next appointment.
Michael Argyle’s communication cycle has benefits in a hospital because it means your conversation will be straight to the main point of you being there and can be easier for the patient you are with because it means that they can also ask you questions or queries regarding their health. A disadvantage of this can be that having a patient who has a disability you may not communicate with them effectively as they may not communicate with you as well as you want them too, such as simple and complex question will be difficult for them to answer which can result for the healthcare professional to bring out pictures and signs in order for them to understand what you are trying to say.
Furthermore, Argyles communication cycle may not work out because an individual’s feelings and attitude towards the subject for example telling a client that they’ve been diagnosed with cancer, they emotions that will build in the client may disrupt the communication which can cause them to start crying hysterically and it’ll be hard for the health professional to continue the conversation and instead to go up to the patient and console them.