The aim for the assignment is to show the student’s understanding in the sense that their understanding is in such a way that they will incorporate completely different information, link the knowledge and thoroughly justify and discuss the information. The deeper understanding of the work shows a broad approach of thinking. The topics which will be mentioned are democracy, democratic legitimacy and also the core features of a democratic state in a certain country.
The nature of democracy was confusing, individuals could not decipher the roots or origins of the term democracy until its origins were found in ancient Greece, Athens. Originally the term democracy referred to “rule by the poor” however it had been later modified to “rule by the people.”. The society living a democratic country have the right to decide on the party that they feel represents them well politically, this can be achieved by having multiple political parties where they are governed by an electoral system. This system is free however not solely free, but conjointly fair which promotes a healthy competition amongst the parties. The democratic system caters for society and serves their interests in the sense the party that won the elections needs to adhere to the desires of the people who voted for it thus the saying ‘government of the people, by the people for the people.’ Although Democracy seems like a definite stable term however, it has plenty of alternative meanings.
Democracy promotes that power ought to be distributed widely and equally, this principle is named Political Equality. This entails and ensures that no person’s voice is heard over the other as they are equal. Although it insists that it listens to the majority’s side however that is not the case. This principle is not continuously adhered to, it is always bias to individuals that are low within the social hierarchy. Cosmopolitan democracy may be a form of democracy wherever it happens at higher levels of governance that is below the global citizenship plan.
Classical democracy also referred to as Direct democracy is when the public/citizen partake in political matters by debating and giving their opinion rather than letting others representing them. Athenian democracy is democracy wherever the citizens of a small town directly gets concerned in politics and create their own laws. This sort of democracy happened in Athens, Greece and it’s appropriate for small places. The kind of ruling was beneficial within the sense that they created their own rules, those rules were administered by a few educated individuals. Athenian democracy opposed the modern representative democracy. There have been measures to be certain that a city/country may rule by the Athenian democracy, solely the two criteria were needed; which were the community should be small enough and there should be people who are willing to work (slaves). Athens met what was on the criteria, but it fell before imperial law in 800-500 B.C. and then they adopted the classical democracy wherever by society’s opinion matter.
Equality, liberty and respect for law and justice were ideal for the chief political. Civil Service India states that: “The Athenians paid high and glowing tribute to justice and law”. This high value tribute is named rule of law. The system branched out to alternative parts of Europe when it prevailed in ancient Greece.
The ideals and aims of Thucydides regarding Athenian democracy is to honor Pericles’ funeral. Thucydides (460-399 BC) believed that the constitutional system of Athenian democracy was distinctive because of the fact that it did not copy any other country’s system. The key features of Classical Democracy extremely support this perspective within the sense that it lays out the basics and necessary things regarding this view, which a reader will simply grasp the path it’s taking.
Protective democracy includes a completely different perspective to Classical democracy. Protective democracy vocalizes the utilizing democracy as a tool for individuals to protect themselves, rights and liberties from the government. John Locke is deemed as the prodigious advocate for Protective democracy. Mr. Locke secured the civil society’s rights and liberties by the utilization of legitimate authority, that means he went about protecting people’s rights in a legal manner to ensure life and a hopeful future. Protective democracy deeply rooted in liberalism, which it believes the government should enhance protecting the freedom of a person in a political manner. Protective Democracy achieves its duties by implementing a bicameral system, all of the legislation is composed and passed by this system. A bicameral system is a system that contains two parliamentary chambers which laws are practiced through the system.
The key features of Protective democracy are sovereignty, legitimacy, the state fulfilling their duty, establishing authority, example. Holding elections, Liberal democracies, Dominance of constitutionalism, Distribution of power (three spheres of government), Measures to forestall violation of rights and liberties and a transparent distinction between state and civil society.
The Development Democracy focuses on human beings however not solely that and additionally the community. This perspective goes astray from the dominant liberal idea of democracy. Democracy was seen as a way of for an individual to reach the true sense of being ‘free’ however within the constraints of the principles and regulations of the government. This concept shy’s away from the notion of voting however it supports the direct democracy approach. Rousseau suggests that in order for a person to be free they need to succumb to conformity and abide to the general will. The general will, will be when an individual act egotistically. A particular level of economic equality is additionally needed with a system like this.
Rousseau’s concepts created a path for alternative theories to be developed, one of the concepts is named Participatory Democracy whereby a person can form their own lives by developing themselves by partaking in activities or events that are getting to pave their future but the person needs to take accountability, the person needs to be open and decentralized within the three social aspects that are family, the workplace and your community however without disregarding the political aspects that are parties, interest groups and legislative bodies. Rousseau’s perspective is not viable in the sense that individuals tend to be egotistic and that issue would not extremely confirm the general will. Mill suggests that people have two parts that contribute to development so we will reach our highest potential. The primary one is moral self-development and the secondary one is development of individual capacities. Mill suggests that argumentative power of individuals, intellect, reasoning, to understand the distinction between right and wrong and keeping in mind the power to participate within the processes of presidency is an individual’s capacities. Mill does not support the state intervention in everyday life things, he believes that the state will solely intervene if an individual’s safety is vulnerable.
The term people’s democracy derives from the aftermath of World War Two. They believed that the other perspective is best than the capitalist perspective because this would permit the true form of democracy to flourish. Countries that are run by people’s democracy or countries that are considered as people democracies are small in size and the population is only a few millions. These are countries like East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary etc. The country’s economies are weak because of the aftermath of World War Two. The countries never recovered that well, therefore people’s democracy run countries like these.
According to Chiocchetti (2017) Democratic legitimacy is “A political institution is legitimate once it succeeds in persuading people of the normative necessity of its existence. In a democratic system, this will be primarily based both on numerous types of popular consent (democratic legitimacy)”. Democratic Legitimacy has three components whereby they are the muse for an establishment to become legitimate. The primary one is consent, once consent is not given by society, venturing in political authority provides them the ‘right to rule’ as a result of the participation they are doing within the political process. Not plenty of individuals are enlightened or they did not offer consent to the institution.
The second part is compromise, conciliation and negotiation, this entails that an establishment ought to create amends with their rival groups (rather turn to peace) than fighting to resolve matters, this may harm both of the groups’ reputations and that they may lose support from their followers. They must adhere to the non-violent mechanisms.
The third part is that the establishment needs to have a system referred to as the feedback system whereby they monitor the outputs as a result of there were inputs placed somewhere, these outcomes/outputs ought to have at least an equivalent quantity of result that was placed in. This sort of system avoids things like rebellions or revolutions to unfold as a result it keeps this disequilibrium. Democratic legitimacy may not be nearly as good because it appears weak compared to a capitalist legitimacy as a result of it appeals to individuals over the democratic route.
It is believed that the non-democratic approach the solely genuine form of legitimacy. Coercion and repression were accustomed to introduce fear within the communities rather than requesting consent. There are three key types of non-democratic ways in which to stay in power. The primary one may be a non-competitive whereby society does not have a selection but to vote for one party. The secondary one deals with when individuals are pressured to provide for the general public however conjointly rising the quality of living, public order, improved healthcare and education. The last one is once there is an effort to uphold the leader’s right to rule or create goals which will be endowed in with a sense of rightfulness.
The core features of a Democracy
A Multi-party system; wherever voters have multiple parties to decide on from and see what appeals to them, representative elections; this happens once society permits another person to talk on their behalf, majority rules; the system of government relies on the majority in parliament, channels of influence; one may have access to the choice makers at each level not simply solely people however groups as well.
The United States of America is a Representative Democracy, the individuals in America vote for representatives. It is conjointly referred to as representative republic. This type of democracy was never a mistake, it was specifically and intentionally designed and also it had a special criteria (financially) and balances for the protection of numerical minorities and constituencies of all categories. The strengths of this kind of democracy is as a result of once an election is won by the proper person, it boosts the economy that affects alternative countries and their economies. The major weakness is the inability for citizens to stand for what they believe in expect for their own family and residence. The other weakness is that plenty of racial tension may well be a lot of present than before, that rants can happen frequently which may offer the country a foul image and people may feel the need to withdraw their investments.
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