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Antibacterial Assay Of Marine Organism

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Anand et al. (1997), have stated that decades ago bioactive compounds have been discovered from marine organism and thought to be of great use and significant in fighting against a pathogenic microorganism.

Hughes et al. (2010) have said that due to the major threat of getting infected by microbial infections caused mostly by bacteria, marine organism have developed complicated natural compounds that have antibacterial property. In the study of Benkendorff (2001), multiple marine invertebrates in their encapsulated embryo form have evolved certain chemical defence as a protection against microorganism because of their vulnerability. Smoot et al. (2015) have articulated in their study that the composition of the masses of gelatinous eggs are primarily consisted of polysaccharides and proteins which are suitable in proliferating microorganisms have resulted to the progression of chemical defences of many benthic egg mass of marine invertebrates.

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Study of Kisugi et al. (1989) shows that sea hare Aplysia kurodai has aplysianin E, a new antibacterial protein factor extracted from the egg, has a inhibiting effect on the synthesis of nucleic acids but do not affect morphological elongation when tested against a representative of gram-positive bacteria and Escherichia coli gram- negative bacterium. In addition, Takamatsu et al. (1995) study shows that Aplysia kurodai has Aplysianin- A, an antibacterial glycoprotein found in the albumen gland of the organism, which has an inhibitory effect to the growth of the gram positive and negative bacteria. The knowledge in knowing the inhibitory spectra of myriad compounds is crucial before applying into use in different fields such as in medicine, agriculture and biotechnology. In doing so, antimicrobial assays are efficient methods in testing and screening the inhibitory property of different compounds resistant to microorganisms (Bailey 2013). The three widely and currently used screening methods are bioautographic and diffusion method which are qualitative assays and dilution method which is a quantitative assay (Balouiri et al. 2016 & Valgas et al. 2007). The said methods are categorized as qualitative assay if the goal is only to test the absence and presence of the inhibitory effect of the substance to the cultured microorganism while the objective of quantitative assay is to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of the substance applied (Valgas et al. 2007).

The gaps in doing antibacterial assay are due to the requirement of specific key factors like pH value, temperature, kind of microorganism used and composition of the compound in determining antibacterial activity.

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