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Anxiety in Athletes

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According to Hong, Hwang, Tai & Lin (2015), a specific task can eliminate activity and support players’ interest to play the game in a competitive setting. However older female athletes worry about performing poorly while males reportedly add higher levels of concentration (Cumming, Grossband, Smith, Smoll, 2009). Whether or not athletes receive social support of depression or anxiety experienced at return play (Covassin, Ding, Heiden, Schaefer, Yang & Zhang, 2014). Zeng, Leung & Wenhao (2008), athletes who possessed a low level of competitive trait anxiety on a regular prahigh levelctice day tended to have low levels of cognitive state anxiety and somatic state anxiety, as well as s of state self-confidence and state sport- confidence on a competition day. In addition, athletes who possessed a high level of trait sport-confidence on a regular practice day tended to have low levels of cognitive state anxiety and somatic state anxiety, and high levels of state self- confidence and state sport-confidence on a competition day. The present investigation also found that cognitive state anxiety and somatic state anxiety were the predictors to estimate athletes’ self-confidence and performance.

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According to Nicholls, Hemmings, and Clough (2010) The emotions generated after appraisal, coping, and event outcome among the sample, the result of this study revealed that coping could generate positive emotions in different stressful situations. Freeman & Rees (2009) explored that the relationship between sporting performance and stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. They also found that challenge appraisals were associated with the better performances, whereas threat appraisals were associated with the players’ poorer performances. Cognitive anxiety involves cognitions about possible failure, while somatic anxiety involves the perception of bodily symptoms and heightened negative arousal. Self confidence, on the other hand, involves cognitions that one is up to the task and able to give one’s best possible performance. Consequently, self-confidence prior to and during competitions usually indicates low competitive anxiety and is often associated with higher performance (Craft, Magyar, Becker, & Feltz, 2003).

Bowman & Dodge (2013) Explores that the potential threats to athletic training student success is becoming more valuable to athletic training educators. However retaining and graduating students is a key factor to preserve the status and quality of athletic training education programs. (Mazerolle, Bowman & Dodge (2014) Social, Academic, and clinical integration is not important aspect to promote the professional commitment and retention, it is necessary to socialize the athletic training student into their education programs and future roles. Li, Moreland, Peek-Asa & Yang (2017) Psychological risk factors are increasingly recognized as important in sport-related injury prevention. Understanding how these psychological factors may affect the risk of injuries could help design effective prevention programs.

Student Varsities

Besharat, & Pourbohlool (2011) observed self-confidence and sport self-efficacy in athletes has a capacity to have different outcomes through their interactions with other variables, Meanwhile Grossbard, Smith, Smoll, & Cumming (2009) described that the importance of taking everything in mind the multidimensional components with male and female athletes as the difference can relate to other variables although Koivula, Hassemen & Fallby (2002) suggested the relation among self-esteem and perfectionism conflicts, depending on which range of self-esteem based on a respect and love for themselves gave more positive pattern of perfectionism while athletes who have self esteem dependent on competence aspects demonstrated a more negative perfectionism.

Swann, Morao, & Piggot (2015) states that the three types of rationale findings pointed out that some athletes are psychologically distinctive and perhaps dysfunctional in their behaviour. Furthermore Gee (2010) argued the significance of being prepared prior to an athletic competition equally needing to maintain a particular mindset during a competitive contest. Adding to that Mcgowan, Prapavessis, & Wesch (2008) observed the outcome showed no support for the sentiment that self-presentational concerns mediate trial-state anxiety relationship that newly constituted scale is favored for measuring self-presentational concerns in sport. Chow, Donohue, Pitts, Loughran, Schubert, Gavrilova, & Diaz (2015) indicated that results of the marked behaviours reduced substantially, but only after they were targeted.

Geukes, Harvey, Trezise, & Mesagno (2017) has identified two main findings; first move of the traits predicted performance under low pressure. Second under high pressure only fear of negative interpretation as well as state were significantly negatively associated with performance in competitions. Notably Gotwals, Dunn, & Stoll (2012) the trend is only probable when the negative influence of perfectionism is sport is adaptive or maladaptive. Zakrajsek, Martin, & Wrisberg (2016) as a result rated service ATs the highest for injury rehabilitation were managing anxiety coping techniques and constructing confidence.

Pre-game rituals

Parnabas, Mahamood, Parnabas, Nagoor Abdulla, (2014) stated that there are positive correlations between imagery, meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, breathing techniques and sports performance. Practicing relaxation techniques can reduce anxiety and enhance performance in which these relaxation techniques can be sold through the form of CD’s, VCD’s DVD’s and audio. According to Brooks, Schroder, Risen Gino, Galinsky, , Norton & Schweitzer (2016) Anxiety, as a negative emotion, affects perceptions in sport competitions where a large majority of athletes consider anxiety to be debilitative towards performance, which may result in decrease in performance (Parnabas, Manahood, Parnabas, Nagoor, Abdulla, 2014) Some studies showed positive reviews on pre game rituals. The inevitable pressure felt by athletes to enhance performance aggravates pre-competition anxiety. (Cumming, Grossband, Smith, Smoll, 2009). Whether or not athletes receive social support of depression or anxiety experienced at return play (Covassin, Ding, Heiden, Schaefer, Yang, & Zhang (2014)

Covassin, Crutcher & Moran (2018) states that there is lack of literature examining the specific relationship of support satisfaction and its predictive influence on stress depression among athletic training students. According to Brooks, Schroder, Risen, Gino, Galinsky, Norton, & Schweitzer (2016) Anxiety, as a negative emotion, affects perceptions in sport competitions where a large majority of athletes consider anxiety to be debilitative towards performance, which may result in decrease in performance (Parnabas, Manahood, Parnabas, Nagoor, Abdulla, 2014) Some studies showed positive reviews on pre game rituals, There are evidences show that performing rituals during athletic events right before the game, helps player before better.

According to Brooks, Schroder, Risen, Gino, Galinsky, Norton, & Schweitzer (2016) Anxiety, as a negative emotion, affects perceptions in sports competitions, wherein a large majority of athletes consider anxiety to be debilitative towards performance, which may result in decrease in performance. Parnabas, Mahamood, Parnabas, Nagoor Abdulla, (2014) Practicing relaxation techniques can reduce the number of athletes taking drugs to reduce anxiety and enhance performance. These rituals can guide goal directed performances by regulating the brains response to personal failure. Some studies showed positive reviews on pre game rituals, according to Hobson, Bonk, and Inzlicht, (2017).

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