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Are Indonesian Teachers Emotionally Intelligent?

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Abstract

The use of social media has become an increasingly powerful form of daily life activities, Instagram is one of them. This affects the romatic relatiopship of someone does, where the partner surveillance can be done on their social media’s life. This study provides a psychometric characteristics analysis of the Indonesian version of the Partner Surveillance Scale which contains 15 items with a 4-point likert Likert scale on female students that using Instagram. Graded Response Model (GRM) method was applied. The study was conducted on a sample of 214 female university students with an age range 17-23 years old. As a results, the Indonesian version of Partner Surveillance Scale is proved to have a good psychometrics properties and fit to the GRM, unidimensionality assumption of GRM was hold and local independence assumption is also well tested.

The results of this study also provide an alternative on the use of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) in analyzing polytomous data with GRM. Implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed. Keywords: emotional intelligence, Indonesian teachers, IRTIntroductionBecoming an emotionally intelligent teacher is a journey and process, not an arrival state or end result. Emotionally intelligent teachers are active in their orientation to students, work, and life. They are resilient in response to negative stress and less likely to overwhelm themselves with pessimism and strong, negative emotions. A growing number of studies have suggested that teachers’ personal competencies, and more specifically Emotional Intelligence (EI), are particularly important for teacher effectiveness.

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Results typically indicated positive impacts, among them increased recognition of the importance of EI to schools (Maree & Mokhuane, 2007); increased use of emotional information, both own emotions and those of students, in lesson plans and in the classroom (Brackett & Katulak, 2006); enhancing teachers’ sensitivity to students’ emotions in different situations (Brackett et al. , 2007); increasing their ability to respond constructively to students’ social-emotional needs (Brackett et al. , 2009); and acquiring SEL strategies (Fer, 2004). However, Boyd (2005) and Corcoran and Tormey (2010) failed to find significant change in teachers’ own EI levels, attributing the results to the insufficient length of training or to the fact that it took place with teaching students rather than active teachers. Furthermore, it has been suggested that EI development should become part of general professional development programmes for teachers (Palomera et al. , 2008; Weare & Gray, 2003; Drew, 2006).

Developing EI competencies could enable teachers to better understand what underlies their motivations and behaviours (Haskett, 2003), and has the potential to enhance less-developed competencies (Kaufhold & Johnson, 2005); contribute to greater understanding of students’ emotions (AbiSamra Salem, 2010); improve teacher-student relationships (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009); and promote effective teaching (Cohen, 2001). But in Indonesia, it was so hard to find some research about this problem. So, the purpose of this study are to validate the measurement of Emotional Intelligence among Indonesian teachers using sophisticated methods in psychological measurement and also make an interpretation about the level of their emotional intelligence based on information from the measurement.

Defining Emotional Intelligence

David Caruso (2003) is a leading EQ thinker, test author, and practitioner. He had this to say about attempts to define EQ: “Just what is this thing called emotional intelligence (EI)? The answer, to a large extent, depends on who you ask. EI has served as a sort of conceptual inkblot [emphasis added], an unstructured notion that is open to a vast number of interpretations”. In other words, a number of people have taken their favorite ideas and called them EQ. So there are numerous definitions, models, and related assessment tools.

Today, three models dominate the EQ landscape: those developed by (1) Peter Salovey and Jack Mayer, and further refined in collaboration with David Caruso, (2) Daniel Goleman, and (3) Reuven Bar-On. Each defines EQ somewhat differently. Just as the definition of cognitive intelligence has been a moving target for the past century, the definition of EQ has varied, depending on who defines it. Each definition has merit. It is premature and probably unnecessary to settle on a universally accepted definition at this point. Different ways of thinking about EQ lead to different lines of research and practice, all of which promote learning (Ackley, 2016).

Methods

Participants

The participants of this study were teachers in the province of Jakarta, amounting to 303 people who were selected with nonprobability sampling technique. The consideration in using the sampling technique is because of the limitations in terms of time to create a sampling frame that contains data about the teacher, so that the sampling technique that allows it to be used is nonprobability. The willingness of respondents to participate in this research is voluntary. InstrumentsThe research instrument in this study was The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The items tested were 20 items from the selection of items that matched the condition of Indonesia. The translation results are tested for the readability aspect and the suitability of the content by the author with the help of a lecturer in the field of Psychology. The data collection process is carried out by including this questionnaire into data collection conducted by students of the Faculty of Psychology UIN Jakarta who are completing their thesis. The 20 items used have a 4-point Likert scale with choice of answers: Strongly Disagree (STS), Disagree (TS), Agree (S), and Strongly Agree (SS).

Furthermore, the data that has been collected is analyzed with the Graded Response Model method with the aim to get information about the characteristics of the psychometric aspects of the adaptation items, before interpreting the emotional intelligence level score as for the GRM method will be explained below.

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