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Before and after the Neolithic Revolution

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Humans have evolved all over the world from as far back as evidence has shown. From the Paleolithic Era, 2,000,000 B.C.E. to 8,000 B.C.E., to the Neolithic Era, 8,000 B.C.E. to 2,000 BCE. There are many ways to explain the similarities and differences between the two Eras that have changed human history. The Neolithic Era was more complex but also gave humans more resources than in the Paleolithic Era. But, as the Paleolithic Era paved the way for the Neolithic Era, it is known to be a drastic change and includes turning points in humankind.

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In the Paleolithic Era, also known as the Old Stone Age, humans lived a nomadic lifestyle where they lived in caves and moved around almost every day. They relied on hunting, fishing, and gathering wild fruits. The meat was their main source of food as they continued to move and follow animals to hunt. In document two it states, “It became less attractive to stalk single animals, however large. The better alternative was to follow herds and not to lose them-to learn to anticipate and in the end to adopt their habits, including their wandering migrations.” This explains that Paleolithic men caught on to smarter ways to hunt for food in their constant movement for resources. Another overview for the time periods is shown in Document one that the Neolithic time period began and there was the last Ice Age.

In the Neolithic Era, also known as the New Stone Age, Neolithic humans discovered how to domesticate plants and animals. Neolithic farmers changed old Paleolithic environments to new land and farms to satisfy human needs. Instead of spending their time searching and hunting for animals and berries men, women, and children could get their food supply right near their homes. In document three it says, “Here are found the wild plants from which wheat and barley were domesticated, whilst it is only in this zone that the wild progenitors of sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs were found together…” This tells us that there was a variety of domesticated plants and animals used in the Neolithic time period. Also In document four, it shows early civilizations where people and farmers settled near water for a source to drink and to help agriculture. They also invented writing, pottery, and weaving. This shows a lot in Document six with the Clay Tablet. Showing an increase in the mindset of Neolithic humans, they could draw and write and figured out their own languages. Also stating in Document nine, “… several highly important technical innovations such as horse-drawn chariots, writing, calendars, and new architectural forms…” That advanced in writing and learning of things like mathematics, astronomy, medical, and more. A huge part of the Neolithic age was the structures and civilizations that were built throughout the years. For example, Document ten says, “The most wonderful aspect of the Indus civilization was the excellent town-planning. The buildings were of baked bricks, some two-storied and some even three-storied. Each house had a yard and was encircled by walls…The roads were wide and straight and there was a proper drainage system.” This shows how advanced Neolithic people became constructively. To conclude, the agricultural revolution and adaptations of new things in the early Neolithic Era had a huge impact on the human species.

There are some similarities but mostly differences between the Paleolithic and Neolithic Era and people. Both time periods increased intelligently and soon advanced in agriculture. But Neolithic is closer to our time period now, with farming, cities, and civilizations.

In conclusion, people of the Paleolithic Era had simple technology, gathering food was their main objective. However, the people of the Neolithic era had a far more developed and much more complex culture. But both showed the increase in humans’ use of resources surrounding them. 

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