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Botany Of Putranjiva Roxburghii Plant

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Introduction

Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. belongs to family Euphorbiaceae and commonly called putra jeevak. It is native of Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Japan, New Guinea and southern China .It is a dioecious, evergreen tree which bears pendent branches. It attains a height of 18m with a girth of 2m. The bark of plant is grey and shiny.This have dark green leaves which is 5-10cm long . Male flowers are yellowish found in clusters.

The female flowers are alone. This have immense medicinal uses.It is useful in rheumatism, cold, fever and inflammation (Chinmaya et al.,2009). It is Native to India also known as Jivputrak ,Kudrajuvi, Patravanti and Nageia. In Sanskrit literature it is called as Jivanputra, Putranjiva, Kumarajiva, Mava, Pavitra and Putrajiva . “Pootranjeeva” is made up of two words in which pootra means a son and jeeva means life. It is used by tribals in treating various health problems .Leaves, fruits and stones of fruits are useful in coldness, sore affections. Rosaries are prepared from firm gravels of the berry to place on neck of children to protect from sicknesses. Sometimes it became the the topic of debate because of its popularity for getting male child. It has been widely used for the treatment of azoospermia, diuretic, catarrh, ophthalmopathy and for constipation (Varma et al.,2010).

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It is reported to be effective for liver diseases,infertility and fever.This contains its potential as as Anti-inflammatory ,Anthelmintic, Anticancer, Aphrodisiac, Diuretic , Laxative and antioxidant. The stones,leaves and fruits are taken as a medicine in colds, fevers and rheumatic pains (Gangal et al.,2009) .Leaves are normally bitter, astringent refrigerant and procreant. It is used in treating skin ailment, aridity alongwith curing rheumatism (Ashok,2005). The oil extracted from seeds are used in Ayurveda, herbal and Unani medications. The leaves and fruits are useful in removing arthralgia and muscle sprain in Thai medicine.

Womens takes the nuts of Putranjiva orally to get birth of a male kid (Khare,2007). Chemically bark contains triterpenoids (Garg and Mitra,1968; Sengupta and Mukherjee,1968). Leaves have triterpene acid and biflavonoid (Garg and Mitra,1971,. This contains mustard oils which act as defence chemical against herbivores. They produce glucosinolates (Soltis and Soltis ,2004) . It shows fluctuations in oil and fatty acids composition in different ages.The seeds have major compounds Oleic and linoleic acids (Gangal et al.,2009).It is utilized as potential healing plant and harbours many chemicals. The aim of this chapter is to provide insights regarding its pytochemistry and medicinal properties against various diseases.

Names in different languages:

  • Hindi name- Putranjeev, Jiyapeeta;
  • English name- Child life tree ,Indian amulet;
  • Gujarathi name- Putramjeeva,Putrajiva, Putranjiv;
  • Kannada name- Putramjiva,Putrajiva;
  • Malayalam name- Pongalam;
  • Marathi name- Putajan;
  • Tamil name- Irukolli;
  • Telugu name- Putrajivika,Kuduru.

Botany of Putranjiva roxburghii Plant

It is a moderate sized evergreen tree reaching up to 12m and have pendent branches with dark grey bark alongwith horizontal lenticels. The leaves simple, distichous, alternate, stipule triangular, caduceus ,acute. The petiole 0.5-1 cm long glabrous and planoconvex in cross section. The flowers bears unisexual male yellow color flowers in axillary clusters.The fruits are 0.5-0.8 inch diameter having round or ovoid looking. Seed present is solitary and slimy inside. Fruits formation occurs in between January to March. The tree can be observed up to 3000 feet altitude in whole India.

Leaves are alternate,simple and caduceus.Petiole 5-7 mm long pubescent and lamina 3.4-11 x 1.4-4.4 cm elliptic oblong, apex shortly acuminate.The Flowers are unisexual.The male flowers are sessile found in axillary spikes, 2-2.5 mm across; pedicels 1.5-2 mm long, glabrous; tepals 3-5, oblong, puberulous without, ciliate, obtuse, imbricate; stamens 2-4, 1.5-2 mm long; filaments thick, more or less connate towards base; anthers ovate, hairy; female flowers: solitary or in 2 or 3, axillary; pedicel upto 15 mm long, puberulous; bracts lanceolate; tepals 5-6, 2-2.5 × 1-1.5 mm, unequal, oblong, puberulous without, ciliate, acute; ovary superior, 3 x 2.5 mm, globose, tomentose, 3-celled, ovules 2 in each cell; style 3, spreading, tomentose, often connate below into dilated into broad fleshy stigma; stigma crescent-shaped, glandular. Fruits drupe, 1.3-2 x 1.5 cm, ovoid-ellipsoid, white tomentose, seed one, crustaceous and pedicels 6-25 mm long.

Phytochemistry of P. roxburghii

Tropical parts of Asia is the central part where P.roxburghii grows abundantly. The kernel projects a sturdy smell having yield of 0.5 percent.The main constituents are depicted in Fig 1. The oil contains 2 butyl isothiocyanates having isopropyl as prime components and 2 methyl butyl isothiocyanates in a very little amount. The glucocleomin and glucoside are also present in the seed (kernels). The glucoside are also present in roots and shoots. The fruitlet paste have sufficient amount of mannitol and little amount of a saponin glucoside alongwith alkaloid.

This is also reported in the stones of the seed case (Supriya et al.,2017). The seed contains oils which have isopropyl and2-butylisothio-cyanates in the form of major constituents while 2-methyl-butyl isothiocyanate in the fform of minor component. The formation of iso thiocyanates takes place through enzymic hydrolysis of glycosidic progenitors viz. gluco-cochlearin, gluco jiaputin and gluco putranjivin respectively. Th glucoside, gluco cleomin has been also found present in the seed kernel. The seed coat contains putranoside A, B, C and D, putranjivoside, beta- sitosterol alongwith tis beta-D-glucoside. The leaves contains amentoflavone.This have derivatives viz., beta-amyrin , palmite, polyphenols, stigmasterol and putranjiva saponin A,B,C, and D. The bark bears carboxylic acid, putric acid, putranjivic acid, friedelanone, friedelin, friedelanol, friedelan-3,7-di-one (putranjivadione)and 3-alpha-hydro- xyfriedelan- 7-one (roxburgholone).

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