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Utter et al. (2007) states that breakfast is an important nutritional contribution to dietary quality and overall health, yet breakfast is more commonly missed than any other meal.
Mullan (2010) also states breakfast can be defined simply as the first meal of the day. Ready-to-eat cereals make a significant contribution to the nutritional quality of diets of children and young adults.
McKevith (2010) also conducted a survey that breakfast are a widespread and appreciated contributor to the country’s diet and, despite delusions, are not key sources of sodium in the UK diet. Data on micronutrient consumptions as breakfast cereals offer a swift, convenient and pleasant way, for children in particular, to achieve recommended intakes. Its Consumption breakfast cereal is associated with beneficial health outcomes including regular eating habits, a more nutritionally well-composed diet, and research suggests it has a beneficial influence on BMI, cognitive function, memory and cardiovascular risk.
William 2014 conducted a systematic review of all 232 articles on breakfast which have whole grain or high in cereal fiber made them good source of nutrient that has sufficient evident related with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function. Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese. Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children. Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension.
Guy, (2001) explains about the majority of product in the breakfast cereal, snack food and biscuit markets are formed from starch. The main sources of starch are cereal and potato crop. There may be some other crops such as cassava or sago that are also a good source of starch and large cereal crops are the most economic source of starch.
Bazzano et. al., (2005) explains that breakfast cereal consumption has been proposed to be protective against development of obesity. Research found some evidence from prospective studies supporting the association of regular or frequent breakfast cereal consumption with BMI (7–9) or adiposity in children and weight gain in men. Fayet et. sl., (2016) mentioned in the research that large body of evidence indicates the consumption of breakfast cereal may be particularly beneﬁcial. Children who eat breakfast cereal, compared to other breakfasts or breakfast skippers, generally have healthier micronutrient profiles, including higher daily intakes of vitamins A and D, the B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and folate, and the minerals iron, magnesium, and zinc.
Cadwell (2016) states that breakfast cereals have been divided into: (1) those that are RTE before or after adding milk and (2) those that are ready-to-cook, also known as hot cereals (HC). RTE cereals are made from one or several grains which require extensive processing and fortified with vitamins and minerals or packaged in such a way to protect their flavor, texture, and nutrition. In comparison, HC products are typically made from a single grain with simple processing and packaging technologies which require heat for cooking or microwave heating before eating.
Tribelhorn (2000) explains that breakfast cereal products technology originally has evolved as milled grains of wheat and oats that were simply made from milling grains that require cooking and ready-to-eat products that are convenient and quickly prepared. These ready-to-eat cereals groups as flaked cereals, extruded flaked cereals, gun puffed whole grains, extruded gun-puffed cereals, shredded whole grains, extruded shredded cereals, oven-puffed cereals, and granola in order of quantities produced, corn, wheat, oats, and rice cereals are relatively shelf-stable, lightweight, and convenient to ship and store. Additional flavor and fortifying ingredients may also be added.
Carvalho-Wells et.al. (2010) conducted a epidemiological studies that have shown an inverse relationship between risk of CVD and intake of whole grain (WG)-rich food. Regular consumption of breakfast cereals can provide not only an increase in dietary WG but also improvements to cardiovascular health. Various mechanisms have been proposed, including prebiotic modulation of the colonic microbiota. In conclusion, this WG maize-enriched breakfast cereal mediated a bifidogenic modulation of the gut microbiota, indicating a possible prebiotic mode of action.
Devlin et.al. (2013) conducted a survey reveals that the quantity specific recommendation of 48g per day but only 19% of the population meeting mean daily whole grain intakes were 27.8 ± 29.4 g/d. Among whole grain cereals wheat was the highest supplier to fiber intakes at 66%, followed by oats at 26%. High whole grain intakes were accompanying with higher dietary consumptions of micronutrient, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Study also suggests that eating additional 10g bowl of whole grain to breakfast containing ‘ready- to-eat breakfast cereals, rice products or pastas’, or whole grain ‘breads’ each day would increase intake of whole 45 grains by an extra 5g, 3.5g and 2.7g respectively.
Usman (2016) found breakfast cereals were produced by roasted on dry heat treatment process from blends of African yam bean maize, and defatted coconut flour (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) in order to obtain the ratios; 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50 that were added equal quantities of sugar, salt, sorghum malt extract, and water. This new roasting process for producing breakfast cereals offers huge potentials for production of acceptable breakfast cereals enriched with protein and fiber- rich sources that could be consumed dry, with water, milk, or warm milk.
Steel et al., (2012) found that traditional snacks or breakfast cereals can be enhanced by the addition of extra fibres or whole grain flour as ingredients during extrusion, transformed into palatable cereal-based products that also promote beneficial physiological effects. Functional ingredients such as soy, and botanicals (fruit, vegetables, cereals, etc.) that present high amounts of bioactive compounds can be used in the extrusion process to develop novel products with phytochemicals and other healthful food components.
Saleh et al., (2013) Sorghum and millets namely, Pearl millet, Finger millet, Kodo millet, Proso millet, Foxtail millet, Little millet, and Barnyard millet are important staples to millions of people world-wide. Generally, these are rain fed crops grown in areas with low rainfall and thus resume greater importance for sustained agriculture and food security. Almost all the millets are used for human consumption in most of the developing countries but their use has been primarily restricted to animal feed in developed countries. Millets are nutritionally comparable to major cereals and serve as good source of protein, micronutrients and phytochemicals. Processing methods like soaking, malting, decortications, and cooking affect the anti-oxidant content and activity.
Kuhnle (2009) demonstrated that cereals and cereal-based foods are including breads, breakfast cereals, biscuits, pasta and rice part of the staple diet in more than 90% of the adult population in the UK. Among these Cereal product bread found maximum number of components such as antioxidants, fiber, and other phytochemicals such as lignans that are structural plant components that converted into enterodiol and enterolactone by mammalian gut microflora. other compounds isoflavones are bioactive as phytoestrogens because of their structural and functional similarity to 17β-estradiol. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens has been beneficial health effects with positive response to many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, menopausal symptoms, male infertility, and obesity and Type 2 diabetes.
Pardeshi and Chattopadhyay (2014) Extrusion cooking technology, a high temperature short time (HTST) processing being used increasingly in the food industries for the development of new products such as cereal based snacks, including dietary fiber, baby foods, breakfast cereals and modified starch from cereals.
Suchowilska and others (2012) states that wheat have high nutritive value and its proximate composition reveals that the moisture content varied between 8.3% and 16.3% and ash content varied between 0.85% and 2.46%, respectively. Crude fat content ranges from 1.14% to 3.80% and reported the fatty acid a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)/monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio of 2.22.
Yadav 2011 states that wheat is well-thought-out source of protein, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber i.e. an outstanding health-building food. Thus, it has been used as prime cereal for the making of bread because of the quality and quantity of its characteristic protein called gluten that enable dough stick together and retain gas. Wheat has numerous remedial virtues; starch and gluten in wheat provide heat and energy; the inner bran coats, phosphates and other mineral salts; the outer bran, the much-needed roughage the indigestible portion that helps easy movement of bowels; the germ, vitamins B and E; and protein of wheat helps build and repair muscular tissue. The wheat germ, which is removed in the process of refining, is also rich in essential vitamin E, the lack of which can lead to heart disease.
Pawan Kumar et. al. (2011) studied about wheat which is considered good source of protein, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber i.e. an excellent health-building food. Thus, it has become the principal cereal, being more widely used for the making of bread than any other cereal because of the quality and quantity of its characteristic protein called gluten. Gluten makes bread dough stick together and gives it the ability to retain gas. Wheat has several medicinal virtues; starch and gluten in wheat provide heat and energy; the inner bran coats, phosphates and other mineral salts; the outer bran, the much-needed roughage the indigestible portion that helps easy movement of bowels; the germ, vitamins B and E; and protein of wheat helps build and repair muscular tissue. The wheat germ, which is removed in the process of refining, is also rich in essential vitamin E, the lack of which can lead to heart disease. The loss of vitamins and minerals in the refined wheat flour has led to widespread prevalence of constipation and other digestive disturbances and nutritional disorders. The whole wheat, which includes bran and wheat germ, therefore, provides protection against diseases such as constipation, ischemic, heart disease, disease of the colon called diverticulum, appendicitis, obesity and diabetes. To enhance the quality as well as the quantity of proteins/starches, and the content of vitamins, essential amino acids, minerals and other healthy components of wheat, it is essential to understand the molecular and genetic control of various aspects of plant growth and development. Kamran et. al. (2008) demonstrated that wheat bran-based breakfast cereal is highly acceptable in terms of color, texture, flavor, microbiological quality and shelf life with fruits was formulated with a unique formulation. Raw wheat bran was toasted at 170-175degreeC for 40-45 min to inhibit rancidity and then moistened and mixed with other nutritional ingredients, fruit banana preserves and binding syrup. The resulting breakfast cereal was suggested that this cereal could be useful for the prevention and treatment of constipation, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.
Maki et.al., (2012) study suggests that wheat bran extract containing arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide (AXOS) elicited a prebiotic effect and influenced other physiologic parameters when consumed in 2.2, or 4.8 g/d as part of ready-to-eat cereal for 3 weeks in 55 healthy men and women
Nazni et.al. (2011) conducted a study that reveals breakfast cereal is a food made from more or less processed grains often but not always eaten with the first meal of the day. Cereal flakes are economical source of energy and protein in human nourishment. Ready-to-eat breakfast bar prepared from mixture of flakes such as (rice flakes, oats flakes, corn flakes and wheat flakes), groundnut and chocolate chips.
Mridula (2015) formulated a multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted wheat, barley, sorghum and pearl millet in the 75, 50, 25, 25 respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using parts of these grains, respectively. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability 75% mix rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia.
Oko et al., 2012 states that rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food provides 700 calories/day-person for about 3 000 million people of the Asia and Africa and less in the European Union (Vlachos and Arvanitoyannis, 2008). Rice is a rich source of carbohydrate, and it contains a moderate amount of protein and fat, and also a source of vitamin-B complex such as thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. Rice main carbohydrate is starch, which is composed of amylose and amylopectin. The rice grain constitutes 12% water, 75%–80% starch and only 7% protein with a full complement of amino acids. Its protein is highly digestible (93%) with excellent biological value (74%) and protein efficiency ratio (2.02%–2.04%) owing to the presence of higher concentration (about 4%) of lysine. Minerals like calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) are present along with some traces of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn).
Borah et.al (2016) demonstrated that the low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace with blend ratio 80:10:10 – 60:30:10 respectively were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively.
Charunuch et.al.,2014 found that defatted rice bran was incorporated with cereal base by an extrusion process to obtain a functional, ready-to-eat breakfast cereal. This study investigated the effects of defatted rice bran content (10, 15 and 20%), the sixth barrel temperature (H6: 130, 140 and 150degreeC), and feed moisture content (14, 17 and 20%). As results showed high correlation coefficients and good agreement between the responses of experimental values at selected optimum conditions and the predicted values from regression equations,
Rouf Shah et al. (2016) mentioned that maize or corn (Zea mays L.) is an important cereal crop of the world. It is a source of nutrition as well as phytochemical compounds that increasing attention being drawn towards the development of nutraceuticals their health properties. It is widely processed into various types of products such as cornmeal, grits, starch, flour, tortillas, snacks, and breakfast cereals. Maize flour is used to make chapatis or flat breads which are eaten mainly in a few Northern states of India. Kumar & Jhariya (2013) states that maize kernel is an edible and nutritive part of the plant. It also contains vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (niacin), vitamin B3 (riboflavin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), folic acid, selenium, N-p-coumaryl tryptamine, and N-ferrulyl tryptamine. Potassium is a major nutrient present which has a good significance because an average human diet is deficient in it. Kumar et.al.(2013) found that the most popular product of maize is popcorn and 100 gm popcorn will supply 3.2 gm of protein along with fat 7.2 gm and 60.8 gm carbohydrate and the inbred lines under study are rich in protein (10.36–12.78%), fat (3.55–4.86%) and starch (70.57–75.37%) and because more fibers will be available in human diet which will enhance the digestion. that rich popcorn snacks and food could make available to the consumers Holguin-Acuna et.al.(2008) demonstrated that maize bran/oat flour extruded breakfast cereal was developed as a novel source of an antioxidant and complex polysaccharides. Six levels of maize bran/oat flour were formulated (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, w/w). The breakfast cereal containing 30% maize bran was the most accepted by consumers. A 100g serving of this cereal formulation provides 0.2g of ferulic acid, and 8g of complex polysaccharides, which includes 1.2g of beta-glucans and 6.8g of arabinoxylans. This cereal breakfast could be an alternative to maize bran, which is a by-product scarcely used for human consumption.
Henkel., (2000) states that soybeans are rich in protein and oil content, which accounts for about 60 % of dry soybeans by weight. The remainder consists of 35 % carbohydrates and about 5 % ash. Many valuable vitamins, flavonoids, and polysaccharides also exist within soybeans. The high soy protein content makes soybeans an excellent source of complete protein, containing significant amounts of the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body.
Breakfast cereals are made from different cereal grains Acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) cereal grain and malted soybean flours (MSFs) were used in the ratio 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 to produce five Acha – soy breakfast cereal (ASC) products. There was a general increase in protein, fat and ash contents as the proportion of malted soybean increased while crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate contents decreased. The energy contents increased with increase in the proportion of malted soybean. enriched breakfast cereal production targeting diabetic individuals and the efforts made to introduce a semi – finished Acha product in the market. (Agu et.al.,2015)
Ying et.al., (2014) found that in order to obtain the optimal recipe of instant coarse cereal breakfast powder, wheat berry, soybean, oat, ormosia, corn and sugar were used as raw material, the effects of different component mixtures in coarse cereal breakfast powder on sensory evaluation value were studied using mixture design. Regression model on ratio of components and sensory evaluation score was established. The results suggested that the optimal recipe of coarse cereal breakfast powder was wheat berry 29.83%, soybean 19.51%, oat 9.48%, ormosia 7.63%, corn 8.59% and sugar 24.97%.