For the research to paper to be understood some related literatures and studies are gathered. These literatures are of assistance in deciding ideas and concepts pertaining bullying and its relationship to self-esteem.The Philippines isn’t exempted to the issue of bullying. As a social issue, it is consistently advancing. With this, the Department of Education issued on September 12, 2013 a notice for the usage of the Republic Act 10627 (Anti-Bullying Law), sanctioned by the Philippine Congress and affirmed by the President. The said reminder orders all basic and optional schools to embrace arrangements to avoid and address the demonstration of bullying in their particular establishment. This would just show and tell that it is viewed as a social issue and concern is pervasive in schools in the Philippines.
BullyingIt is a must to know what bullying is in order to recognize the issue about bullying in school. It is a problem not only present in the Philippines, but also throughout the world. Lentine (2018) states that bullying is an act of being violent towards a weaker person. Moreover, it is an act of triggering one person’s pain (verbally or emotionally), harassing or making a helpless individual a subject for aggressive face-to-face acts. (Garaigordobil & Machimbarrena, 2017).Tormenting in the Philippines is across the board in schools and over the web, with an investigation that expresses that around 50 percent of Filipino understudies are harassed in school. It can undoubtedly influence both the bully and the casualty that is the reason the administration in Philippines is endeavoring to take action against it. The most recent measures incorporate the marking of the anti-bullying act of 2013, which criminalizes any demonstration of tormenting or digital harassing that occurs in the nation.Bullying in SchoolThey say that schools are representation of our second home, however these days it is where a youngster could be most defenseless of that supposed harassing. A bully does not pick who to spook, where in even age, race, incapacities, or significantly sexual orientation isn’t a boundary for them to spook a man. Any individual can be a pawn of harassing and can happen at any place, yet the most well-known place for tormenting to occur among youth is at school (Lentine, 2018).
Bullying has different classification which includes verbal bullying, relational bullying, racial bullying, sexual bullying, reactive bullying, and cyber bullying.
Individual-level risk Factors for Bullying and Victimization
BulliesRoss (2002) states the outline of qualities of bullies are those individuals who don’t get considerations from their folks in their homes whereas it can be a conceivable result of bullies. She presents Olweus’ work deciphering that with in section of bullies there are two specific groups. Aggressive bullies – they are characterized by being stronger than average, active and impulsive. They’re more into violence.Anxious bullies- they are characterized by having lack confidence, low self-esteem, and few friends. Furthermore, they are loyal followers of the aggressive bullies.
Anyone can become a pawn of bullying but Naidoo and colleagues (2016) have mentioned that children who came from rock-bottom socioeconomic status are mostly the victims of bullying. There are two distinct groups of victim.
Passive Victims- they are characterized by having a low self-concept and self-confidence, emotionally sensitive and fears of inadequacy. They are smaller and weaker than an average child should be at their age.
Proactive Victims- they are far more assertive, confident and active.
According to Holt, Finkelhor, & Kaufman Kantor (2007), there is a third order of individuals who could either be the bully or the victim whereas it is classified as the Bully-victim. Contingent upon the circumstance they experience, their attributes relates both those of the bully and the casualty. Self-esteemSelf-esteem is one of the considerable “knowledge mobilization” examples of overcoming adversity of current modern psychology. Not just has it has been the subject of serious experimental and hypothetical investigation inside the scholarly and research-based mental network. However, the idea has been grasped by popular culture (Mecca, Smelser, & Vasconcellos, 1989). Furthermore, it is “an individual’s subjective evaluation of his or her worth as a person” (Orth & Robins, 2014, p. 381).
Relationship of Bullying and Self-esteemAccording to Angold and Costello (2013), Bullying at school is a serious threat to the youth today which can have a variety of short and long term effects for both victim and bully. It should be noted that both victim and bully benefit from psychosocial support. Furthermore, Frisen, Jonsson and Persson (2007), states that low self-esteem is the most common reason for the children to perpetrate bullying. On the other side, there is no satisfying evidence that tells self-esteem is a risk factor for bullying. Although there are those studies that show that bullies have low self-esteem basing from the sample of children and adolescents from a particular community (O’Moore & Kirkham, 2001). However, according to Seals and Young (2003) others have discovered no confidence contraasts amongst spooks and the youngsters they exploit. Or that domineering people have higher self-esteem (Karatzias, Power, & Swanson, 2002). Low confidence has for quite some time been speculated to be a hazard factor for hostility and reserved conduct. SynthesisFrom the reviewed literature and studies, it indicates that bullying is a physical, verbal or mental assault by at least one people that causes agony and harassment. It likewise has characterizations from the type of bullying and the kind of individuals include in it. Moreover, it demonstrates that there are factors affecting why a person bully. Furthermore, it likewise showed the relationship of bullying to self-confidence in routes, for example, when somebody has low confidence or the other way around. It also indicates that bullying affect the self-esteem of an individual and having a low self-esteem is one of the cause students are being bullied.This research as of now led is not the same as the reviewed literatures and studies since it is a blended quantitative-qualitative-correlational kind of research and it is conducted in the Philippines. Besides, the respondents were just constrained to 300 because of Slovin’s Formula.
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