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Can Steve Jobs Be Measured As An Efficient Leader?

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Literature Review

Leadership today standout amongst the utmost recognized management subject, coincidently it is a challenge to comprehend what the subject present. A particular explanation cannot incorporate various features of leadership (Alliger, (1986); Bennis and Nanus, (1985); De Vader et. al, (1984); Kenny and Zaccaro, (1983) and Pfeffer, (1977)). The different leadership-theories can help to understand fairly the vagueness of the explanation. Another intention behind the attractiveness to the leadership subject is that leaders act or failure to act can affect individuals, not only in the achievement of an organization, socially as well i.e. collectively, a business or a bigger organization even nationally The analysis of texts demonstrates the idea of leader’s feature and individualities in the prior research of leader Bass (1990); Curphy and Hogan (1994); Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991); Kenny and Zaccaro (1983); Ferentinos (1996); Foti, et al. (1991); Bray and Howard (1988) and later concepts considering different relevant condition of leader alongside his followers. The leadership research subject has advanced from the colossal man hypothesis, to the trait hypothesis, to behaviorist hypothesis, to situational hypothesis, to possibility hypothesis, to value-based hypothesis and to transformational leadership Bolden, et al.

Steve Jobs background

In the late 1970s, Steve Jobs as CEO, with Steve Wozniak and Mike Markkula Apple co-founders established Apple Inc. in 1976 and successfully industrialized the first line of personal computer known as Apple II. In the mid-1980s, Steve Jobs was among the first to see the business capability of the mouse-driven graphical UI which prompted the formation of the Macintosh PC. In the wake of losing a power battle with the board in 1985, Steve Jobs surrendered his position as an Apple Inc. CEO and established NeXT, specializing business and education markets. Apple Inc. subsequent NeXT buyout took Jobs back to the organization he helped to establish, and he has filled in as its CEO since 1997 till his untimely death in 2011. Additionally, Steve Job helped to establish and was the CEO of Pixar Animation Studios, which made the absolute most fruitful and cherished animated movies ever including A Bug’s Life, Cars, Finding Nemo, Monsters, Inc., Toy Story, Ratatouille and The Incredibles. Pixar merged with the Walt Disney Company in 2006 and Steve served on as Disney’s directorate. With Steve Job, Apple is known for its premium brands like iPad, iPhone, iPod, and iTunes and so on. Apples achievement is known under Steve Jobs Leadership even though the point that is, it is tough to explain Steve Jobs’ leadership-style to any one specific theory, to assess his leadership-style two theories of leadership will be utilized the Transactional and Transformational theories and furthermore the Hershey Blanchard’s situational hypothesis. Steve Job’s leadership-style is by all accounts both transactional and transformational theories. As indicated by Bass (1985) and Burn (1998) both these theories are more balancing than opposing each other.

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Leadership Theories

Transactional leadership

Transactional leadership happens when one individual steps up with regards to reaching out to others with the end-goal of a give-and-take of something valuable; that is, “leaders landing out a hand to followers with one and only intention to trade” (Burns, 1998). In Transactional leadership, leader’s achievement control of their subordinates through acclaim, terrorizing and pressure. The transactional leader determines the norms for submission, and may discipline followers for being out of agreement with those guidelines (Bass and Avolio, 1997). Transactional models of leadership stresses the verifiable social interchange, or deal, that exists amongst leader and devotees as an element of adequacy. This transactional method underlines a more dynamic part for followers, with the potential for two-way effect, as opposed to pressured submission (Hollander, 1992).

As indicated by Bryant (2003) outcome of transactional leadership employees are not inspired to give anything past what is clearly determined in their agreement. Employees may likewise use their overabundance mind ability by consulting or beginning their own particular business on the off chance that they are not challenged and compensated for additional determination in the organization. The transactional leadership hypothesis is identified for its in-ward consideration and self-realization feel, recognized as the utmost right for a philosophy with steady circumstances. (McKenna E., 2006). Burn’s (1998) thought of the leader as a changing agent has been connected to leadership of the organization by Bass (1985) and Bennis and Nanus (1985) particularly as a wellspring of extraordinary execution. The fundamental argument is that the leader tries to go past the limits of the typical to achieve a transformation in subordinate’s perception that will change their thinking and action (Fiedler and House, 1994).

Transformational-leadership

The focal perception in transformational-leadership hypothesis is a change and the part of leadership in imagining and actualizing the change of organizational achievement (Bolden, et al. 2003). Transformational leaders make an environment helpful for information creation, sharing and abuse.

Specifically, by utilizing charm, empowering self-intellectual improvement and by giving careful consideration to individual laborers, transformational leaders inspire their labors knowledge sharing. Transformational leaders encourages laborers on to more elevated amounts of advancement and viability. (Bryant, 2003) Transformational leadership has been presented to have a positive relation with execution. (Lowe, et al. 1996). In spite of the help that transformation leadership hypothesis got there are still shortcoming which is distinguished by Yukl (1999) that is the transformational practices are observed to miss in Bass (1996) which are recognized as inspirational (injecting the work with importance), developing (improving devotee capabilities and self-assurance), and empowering (Providing huge voice and carefulness to adherents).

Writers (Bass 1985, 1996; Pawar and Eastman, 1997; Pettigrew, 1987) are of the view that the situational factors which are missed may improve the probability of transformational leadership or direct its impact on followers. Transformational leadership hypothesis can have a few negative results for the organizations as distinguished by (Harrison and Leitch 1994; Stephens, D’Intino, and Victor (1995); Porter, and Bigley, (1997)) first is that followers changed to high level of passionate participation which influences them to wear out their outstanding stress also, was being one-sided toward the upper management, clients at the cost of workers thirdly, different leaders with contending ideas can make role uncertainty and role struggle. Bass and Steidlmeier (1999) contend that transformational leadership is unscrupulous, it might engage feelings as opposed to reason and it does not have the governing rules of law based talk and power circulation. Yukl (1999) contends that the hypothesis bargains basically with the leader follower conduct and has given less consideration at the organizational and team level.

Hersey Blanchard situational theory

This illustrative implement attention to task-oriented and relational-oriented behavior. It expands these two measurements of leadership to four styles namely: tell, sell, participation, and delegation (McKenna E., 2000). Development comprises of two sections psychosomatic maturity and job maturity. Steve Job’s development identifies with task significant-skills and technical-awareness. Psychosomatic development relates with sentiments of self-assurance and capacity, individuals’ eagerness to assume liability for organizing their own behavior. Attention is put on coordinating a leadership-style to the development of juniors, and this correlation is essential in assurance of leadership adequacy (Hersey and Blanchard 1982).

Tell: A directive-style and task-oriented is for inexperienced subordinates who needs to be told what do.

Sell: A relationship-oriented style where semi-skilled subordinates, would be influenced that a specific game-plan is the most fitting. Highly skilled subordinates are will be treated with a specific measure of respect and would be permitted to partake in decision-making process.

Designation: Highly skilled subordinates will be viewed as fit for practicing self-direction and discretion, and a high level of self-sufficiency. Most essential in Hersey and Blanchard’s hypothesis is the attention on genuinely situational nature of initiative and their acknowledgment of the requirement for conduct adaptability with respect to the leader Yukl, (1981). Barrow (1977) and Yukl (1981) contend that however the model is prescriptive for estimating leadership-style, style variety, and viability justifies considerably less good assessments. The idea of task-relevant development that has been reasonably questionable. As per an investigation by Graeff (1983), it has interior consistency issues, generous theoretical logical inconsistency, issues with the reasonable meaning of relationship conduct and conflicting contentions in regards to the propriety of participative basic leadership contribute.

Steve Jobs Leadership Theories

Steve Jobs as a Transformational Leader

Transformational leaders are charming, vision-oriented, empowering mental and psychological growth, inspirational and encouraging to greater heights of efficiency. This perspective clearly assures that Steve Jobs’ leadership hints at transformational leadership has a charming character. As shown by Khurana (2002) Steve Jobs, the genius of Apple, Inc. loved by many for his accomplishment in giving to the world a PC that could ensure our freedom.

As Steve Wozniak, a fellow Apple, Inc. co-founder concisely explains: he can simply seat things into correct perspective. Steve Job is described as the heart and soul of Apple. What was idealistic about Job’s methodology was he is without a doubt benefit was his passionate zest to demonstrate to people the future ability of the product, with this revelation as far sightedness has earned him great evangelist ever lived. (Uttal, 1985). Cocks (1983) maintains that Apples fellow co-founder, Steve Wozniak, intensely expressed that Jobs knew nothing about computers, and the actual master mind behind computer building was created to Steve Wozniak. Nevertheless, as Wozniak in addition expressed, it never entered his thoughts to sell this computer. It was Jobs who demanded that the PC be elegant, all around outlined in gentle colors’. Likewise, Steve Jobs pushed his designers to make machines that won’t scare away an edgy customer (Cocks, 1983). Butcher (1988) maintains that Steve Jobs was a perfectionist, and as the Apple, Inc. grew, number of individuals in the organization saw this as narrow self-centeredness and dogmatism.

One of Apple’s employees by the name of Steve Hawkins a said Job’s such a perfectionist, to such a point that no one can never satisfy him, his to a serious go-getter, nearly to the point of egotism. (Butcher, 1988). Transformational leadership is tied in with empowering innovation, realizing a transformation in the mind of its followers and being visionary in realizing change in the performance of the organization. Steve Jobs as a transformational leader is found in his accomplishments to bring imaginative digital technology to mass customers with the goal that they can open their wallets (Deutschman, 2001).

Steve Jobs vision is proven innovatively when Apple is focused on bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the globe through its creative hardware, software and Internet offerings (Dulewicz, Young, and Dulewicz, 2005). As far as inspirational and motivating employees to provide, their greatest of dedication is distinctive for transformational leadership. Proof of inspirational and encouraging his personnel is when Steve Jobs initially discussed at all fresh ideas to his personnel not every person believed it to be an effective product.

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