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Cell Membranes And Their Characteristics

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Eukaryotic cells are the most structurally advanced of the major cell types. One thing unique about plant cells is that they have chloroplasts. chloroplasts have a double-membrane envelope, called the chloroplasts envelope. Animal cell do not have chloroplasts. Chloroplasts in plant cells is where photosynthesis occurs. Photosynthesis is the process in which plants make their own food by converting light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into sugars and starches. Another unique thing about plant cells is that they have central vacuoles. Central vacuoles is what the plant cell uses to store food, water, and wastes. Central vacuoles have membranes.

The Nucleus is a eukaryotic organelle that synthesizes DNA and RNA. The nucleus acts as the command center for the entire cell. The nucleus is surrounded by a system of two membranes, which protects its insides so it can produce DNA and RNA in a controlled environment. The Nucleus has small opening called the nuclear pores, in which tiny needed material passes in and out of the nucleus.

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Ribosomes are eukaryotic organelles and they produce protein within a cell. Ribosomes do not have membranes. These components act as a code reader for converting the message of DNA into usable proteins within the cell. Its process is similar to that of the military command structure. The DNA is like the think tanks at the pentagon which gives it orders to Military commanders. The Military commanders are the mRNA. They head out to the army core of engineers and say build this. The army core of engineers are the Ribosomes. The army core of engineers say “sir, yes sir” and build only what their commanders’ written orders say to build. Then the Ribosomes go meet up with rough endoplasmic reticulum. Then the ribosomes insert the proteins they created into the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum are eukaryotic organelles that modify and renovate proteins. Rough endoplasmic reticulum have membranes. Their membrane will branch off and create transport vesicles to transport proteins around the cell.

Vesicles are eukaryotic organelles that secrete, digest, and transport proteins. Vesicles are primarily do the transportation of material in and out or within the cell. “Endocytosis” is the term used for the transportation of solid material into the cell. When endocytosis takes place the vesicle carrying the material that will link to the cell membrane and become part of it, discharging its substances into the cytoplasm. Vesicles also transport proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. Some vesicles serve as storage vessels as well. Vesicles have membranes.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum are eukaryotic organelles that synthesize lipids and membranes. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum create detoxifying enzymes to keep the cell healthy. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum have membranes.

The Golgi Apparatus are eukaryotic organelles and have membranes. The Golgi Apparatus receives the proteins that the rough endoplasmic reticulum sent. The Golgi Apparatus stores and refines the proteins. When the time is right, the Golgi Apparatus ships off the proteins and distributes them to other organelles with in the cell.

Lysosomes are eukaryotic organelles and have membranes. Lysosomes are digestive enzymes found mostly in animal cells. Lysosomes come from vesicles that bud off from the Golgi apparatus. Enzymes inside a lysosome can break down molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, fats, and nucleic acids. The lysosome provides a compartment where the cell can digest these molecules safely, without releasing these digestive enzymes into other parts of the cell.

Lysosomes have numerous sorts of digestive functions. Several cells consume nutrients into minute cytoplasmic sacs called food vacuoles. Small molecules that come about from this breakdown, leave the lysosome and feed the cell. Lysosomes also give aid to eliminate damaging bacteria. For instance, our white blood cells consume bacteria into vacuoles, and lysosome enzymes that are put into these vacuoles break the bacterial cell walls. In addition, lysosomes break down the large molecules of damaged organelles. Without damaging the cell, a lysosome can consume and digest parts of another organelle, essentially reprocessing it by making its molecules accessible for the construction of new organelles. Lysosomes also have shaping functions in embryonic development.

Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles that synthesize ATP which is used for chemical energy. ATP is the general energy yielding component required for the reactions that modulate many essential cellular processes. Mitochondria are usually round to oval in shape and range in size. Mitochondrion have four compartments; an outer membrane, and inter membrane that forms identifiable structures called cristae, and a matrix. (Fauron, Christiane, 2002, para 1)

Cytoskeletons are eukaryotic organelles that give the cell its shape and allows the cell to move about. Cytoskeletons are also the part of the cell that make cell division possible. Cytoskeletons do not have membranes. The proteins that make up the fibers of the cytoskeleton are able to assemble by themselves into walls. Cytoskeletons have three types of filaments microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. The cytoskeleton is enormously dynamic, because the filament systems are able to lengthen or shorten very quickly. This dynamic nature of the cytoskeleton is necessary for cells to be able to change shape, complete cell division, and travel. (Chisholm, Rex L , 2002 para 1-2)

According to “A Dictionary of Biology.” (2004) “Microtubules are microscopic tubular structure, found in a wide range of eukaryotic cells. Microtubules are composed of numerous subunits of the globular protein tubulin and occur singly or in pairs, triplets, or bundles. Microtubules help cells maintain their shape.” ( para. 1). In some eukaryotic cells, microtubules are arranged into structures called flagella and cilia. Cilia and flagella are motile appendages that aid in movement.

Cell membranes are very important because the act as needed barriers to keep organelles and cells intact, and unwanted stuff out of the organelle and cell. The membranes also act as a filter to letting chemicals in and out of the cell and organelles “The cell membrane is the only cellular structure that is found in all of the cells of all of the organisms on Earth.” (Online learning center, 2002, para 1)

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