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Christopher Columbus' Voyages to Africa and America and the Impact

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European Development

European development abroad after the fifteenth century brought progressive change to all the world’s people groups, however the Iberian time frame before 1600 was one of a kind in its abuse especially through the Columbian Exchange. Europeans have brought diseases and illnesses to the New World in which case the native population had no resistance to it, such as smallpox which thus made them very weak and fragile. This indirect genocide and massacre is a standout amongst the most sad disasters in mankind’s history. It added to a chose change in the racial arrangement of Iberian America, as a convergence of dark slaves, with proceeded with Spanish and Portuguese migration led to cultural diffusion in which case there was a mix of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. As time passed in the late 1500’s, the native Indian populations started to come back but in very few numbers and their societies, joining with Iberian and African, framed another setup, which became to what we currently know as, Latin America.

Unique Iberian history influenced the development of the Portuguese and Spanish colonies through three major components in which case all identified with the Christian Reconquista: the part of the conquistadors, an activist Christianity, and a profoundly portioned society. The adventurers that won the Iberian promontory for the Spanish and Iberian rulers were utilized to increase new domains in the Americas. Acting independently,and for their own pick up, they were to a great degree fruitful in vanquishing American domains. Just as the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula was joined by change or removal of Jews and Muslims, victory of the Americas led to the transformation of certain populations. The division of Iberian culture along racial and religious lines was reflected developed in society.

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In Latin American colonies economically, they were dependent on agriculture especially since sugar was flourishing and the slave trade with Africa was continued. Africans in Latin America had been very various in their economic, social and demographic conditions. Not all Africans arriving in South America had been enslaved, and some experienced increased freedoms than these in the North American Colonies. For example, some areas allowed slaves to marry, and in others they were even taught to read and write. Paradoxically, Brazil, whilst protecting a popularity for brutality, also had the absolute best range of slave marriages in the Colonial period. During the Spanish colonial period, the economy was based totally on exploitation, both of land and of Indian labor. The first Spanish settlers prepared the encomienda system with the aid of which Spaniards had been given title to American land and ownership of the villages on that land. In return for promises to convert the Indians to Christianity, the Spanish have been allowed to use the land and labor any way they saw fit. This device rapidly grew to become into something very close to outright slavery: Indians were paid rather low wages—if something at all—to perform backbreaking labor on plantations and in mines. The Spanish believed that their God-given obligation was to convert the Indians, and that the European idea of eternal salvation used to be a reward extremely good sufficient to justify any feasible mistreatment in this life. The end result was a race for manipulation of humans greater than of land, and now not too surprisingly, abuses were so great as to turn out to be the norm. Also, more silver, over the subsequent hundred years, than had existed in all of Europe up to that time. Suddenly, the New World grew to be a cash cow for Spain, which used its 20% of the proceeds to wage nearly endless wars in Europe. Unsurprisingly, the stipulations for the Indian (and eventually African slave) labor in the mines used to be horrific. By the eighteenth century, however, silver receipts were falling, meaning that the financial system of Spanish America suffered as well. But by way of then, a trans-Atlantic alternate in sugar, slaves and commodities made up for the shortfall. This led to the “New Law” of 1542, which ended current encomiendas, on the death of their holders, prohibited native American slavery, and gave Indians full protection under Spanish law. In addition, socially and politically a caste system formed based upon how pure one’s blood it pertaining to Spanish descent as well as where one was born. It went from Peninsulares (were held highest of office: church, military, and administrative. In addition they were born in the Iberian Peninsula. Were known to be the trusted one’s and were known for their loyalty.) to Creoles (were born in the Americas, owned land, and were elites) to Mestizos (descents from the Amerindians and Spanish and the Spanish native men married native people) to Mulattoes (spanish and african descent) to Amerindians to Zambos (amerindian and african descent) to Africans.

Thus, there were many Iberian features that led to the development of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies as well as how the Spanish have influenced the structures or their Latin American colonies.

Christopher Columbus initially set forth his voyage to find India, known for its richness of spices and he was under Ferdinand and Isabella under this voyage promising that at the same time he would spread the word of God, in the name of Christianity. Unfortunately Columbus came to the Americas and at that time known as the New World. Columbus’s voyages to the Americas are necessary often because of the reality that they “opened” the New World to exploration and to conquest. In different words, Columbus’s 4 voyages did not have a high-quality have an impact on in and of themselves, but they led the way to different voyages and activities that did have an effect on the Americas, Europe, and the world.

One of the most direct effects of Columbus’s voyages went to the Americas hence the term the Columbian Exchange. The Columbian Exchange was basically the spread of diseases from the Europeans amongst the native populations. The victims of this were exposed to smallpox and measles in which case their immune system wasn’t immune and didn’t grow resistance upon these two common and deadly diseases during this time period. In North and South America more than half the native population have died as a result and the Spanish took advantage of this situation as well as the Europeans as they could form a new population based upon their citizens and slaves imported from Africa. In addition, when the Europeans were in contact with the people of the Pacific Coast the same disastrous event occurred once again destroying early cultures and early civilizations. The overthrow of the Aztec empire and the advent of New Spain is an instance of this. The Aztecs lost their political independence. Culturally, they underwent a system in which their culture was once blended with that of Spain and grew to become some thing totally new.

Secondly, Christopher Columbus made quite a few voyages to the Americas. These voyages impacted Europe in many ways.Many European nations had been looking for a quicker way to attain the Far East. These international locations have been hoping to locate minerals and to extend trade in the Far East. Columbus decided to try to reach the Far East by means of heading west. When he traveled westward, he came across a number of places in the Americas. The explorers of these nations hoped to find out a shorter route to Asia. While they by no means found the shorter route, other explorations led to the discovery of many minerals. Explorers claimed these lands for their country, and efforts have been made to mine the minerals and convey them returned to Europe. This led to the establishment of colonies by way of countless European nations. These countries received the minerals and additionally benefited economically by way of increasing their change with the colonies they established. In Europe, the outcomes of the voyages were typically greater benign. Europe benefitted from many things located in the Americas. two Spain, of course, acquired the use of American gold and silver. (This was once not an unmixed blessing for Europe as it helped to fund many wars that may in any other case no longer have happened.) two European nations received an outlet for excess population, making home affairs less volatile as sad people ought to often really depart for the Americas. two Europeans were also exposed to such matters as corn, potatoes, tomatoes, and chocolate, all of which modified their consuming habits.

Lastly, Columbus’s voyages also led to bad effects in Africa. Eventually, Europeans who got here to the Americas decided that they wished labor to work their American plantations. They grew to become to Africa, and took tens of millions of human beings from that continent to work as slaves in the New World. In other words, one negative about the slave change used to be that it tended to expand the amount of battle that occurred in West Africa. The cause for this is that European (and American) slave merchants did no longer simply go out into the African countryside and kidnap their very own slaves. Instead, they bought slaves from the coastal kingdoms. two Those kingdoms usually acquired slaves to promote thru fighting and via raiding against inland tribes. Because the slave merchants desired greater slaves, the coastal kingdoms were stimulated to wage greater wars and behavior more raids against their neighbors. In addition, those kingdoms have been provided with things like guns in exchange for slaves. This helped those kingdoms have more of a capability of waging war. At least in short term, it helped the coastal kingdoms. Those kingdoms grew to become richer and extra powerful due to the fact they have been in a position to get guns, money, and other things in exchange for the slaves. However, even these kingdoms were damaged in the long term. This is due to the fact the slave alternate harm all of West Africa. First, the slave change took away hundreds of thousands of Africans (men extra than women) in the prime of their lives. This badly disrupted both the cultures and the economies of the African nations.Since they had been disrupted, they have been much less in a position to progress. The link beneath argues that the slave trade made it harder for Africa to experience an industrial revolution. two This is due to the fact the men and female who could have helped make these revolutions had been being taken into slavery. Thus the African nations did not develop economically and as their societies have been weakened, they were unable to efficiently face up to the Europeans when the Europeans started to colonize Africa.

Thus, Christopher Columbus’ voyages affected Africa, the Americas, and Europe economically and societally in many aspects such as leading to the slave trade and the depopulation of an area.



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