With advancement medical facilities in this 21st century, there is also an increase in providing a quality and affordable treatment. Infectious diseases is seen as an emerging global challenge for the world. Clinical Microbiology is the scientific study of pathogenic microorganism. It helps in diagnosis, management and treatment of infectious diseases. Clinical microbiology connects with other fields of medical science like molecular biology and serology to give information on microorganism.
Clinical samples such as blood and urine are collected from the patients for further tests. Fresh blood samples help us provide accurate information. Urine is now processed in microbiology lab and information is obtained from culture. Various agar media is used in clinical microbiology such as Blood Agar, Urichrome, MacKoney, Chocolate, MHE, XLD, and SDA. Streaking is to produce isolated provinces of a living being on an agar plate. This is valuable when we have to isolate life forms in a blended culture or when we have to ponder the state morphology of a life form.
Gram stains are used on clinical samples to differentiate between gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. Serology is branch of medical science which deals with blood. And various serological tests are being conducted.
Some of them are:
1) BLOOD COLLECTION
2) URINE COLLECTION
Sample is collected in a sample container whose volume is 3-3.5 ml from the patient.
1) HEPACARD PRINCIPLE
Hepacard is a rapid and fast test to determine one of the most fatal disease known as Hepatitis B. This test is based on the antigen- antibody reaction. The hepacard is made up of substance that promote capillary action. The sample when poured in the sample well moves upward via capillary action and a colored line appears showing the test results due to antigen antibody binding on the surface.
It is the rapid, simple and accurate methode to detect early stages of Hepatitis B virus. HBV can be detected 2-5 weeks by HBsAg card test.
HBsAg card test can be used in In Vitro diagnostics only. Only serum or plasma samples can be used in HBsAg card test. HBsAg card test is a qualitative test. It can only indicate HBsAg antigen on the surface HBV.
Due to cappilary action the sample moves upwards.
1) If the sample gives only one coloured line on the control region, then the test is said to be negative.
2) If there appears to be 2 coloured lines, both on the control region and test region then it is said to be positive.
2) HCV PRINCIPLE
The fourth generation HCV TRI-DOT is a rapid, visual, sensitive and qualitative method detecting antibodies against Hepatitis C Virus in human serum. The HCV TRI-DOT test is based on the principle of immobilization and absorption. The immunofiltration pad absorbs the serum sample and the reagents poured in it. It has been build in such a way that it has high ability to bind with NS3 antigens more effectively, efficiently and rapidly. HCV TRI-DOT CARD has markings upon it each pointing to different results such as ‘C’ = Control Region and ‘T1’ = T1 Antigen Region and ‘T2’ = Antigen Region.
HCV TRI-DOT KIT COMPONENTS
S.no Ingredients Preparation
HCV card test allows easy detection of HCV antigen produced in our body by the immune response. It gives a qualitative result. Early diagnosis of Hepatitis C virus.
Fresh sample should be used. This is only a preliminary test and should be confirmed with tests too. It is a time bound test. Patient’s with auto-immune disorders show positive result even if they are not infected by the HCV
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