The Mesopotamian Civilization was greatly impacted by its geographic location which gave them benefits such as trade and protection, but also challenges such as conflict and flooding. Mesopotamians have been able to trade with all sorts of civilizations due to their good position as archaeologists have found goods from Egypt to India. This would suggest that these Mesopotamians had good contact with people which increased their trade and made them richer. Though they had good trade, this position could also lead to more conflicts than your average civilization as they border three different continents filled with various strong and eager civilizations. In order for them to survive in this location, they needed to develop better ways of defending themselves which would of been a significant challenge. Their location was not entirely undefended as it did have some natural obstacles like the Taurus Mts. to the north and the Zagros Mts. to the east along with a vast Arabian desert to the south. These obstacles helped the Mesopotamians invest their time and effort into more vulnerable locations.
Another big challenge the Mesopotamians had to face was the floodings of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers which caused destruction in their villages and destroyed their crops. By finding a way to control these floods, they can endure the floods that these rivers will present them. Mesopotamians had big advantages and disadvantages to the area of which they live.
The Egyptian Civilization was greatly impacted by its geographic location which gave them benefits such as protection and transportation, but also challenges such as limited expansion and flooding. The desert around Egypt also known as the ‘Red Land’ protected Egypt from attackers as they were mostly left undisturbed until the end of the New Kingdom. This desert also limited their expansion as they can’t survive in a desert without a consistent water source which means the Nile and the coastlines were the only suitable spots for expansion.
The Nile river was able to provide transportation to the Egyptian Civilization which greatly impacted their communication with Upper and Lower Egypt and increased trade with Africa and into Europe and Asia via the Mediterranean Sea. This also introduced the problem of flooding from the Nile which could destroy a lot of cities and villages along the river and even the crops. The Egyptians had benefits and challenges to living by the Nile River.
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