Osteoporosis is increased among those who smoke cigarette drank alcohol, glucocorticoids or had an associated medical disease known to affect calcium or bone metabolism, causes of osteoporosis are associated with bone marrow adiposity, Medical intravenous has been shown to hurt health leading to both obesity as well as osteoporosis, for example, osteoporosis is obesity are two main side effect of the treatment of nonmetastatic prostate cancer.
Obesity is a known and well-established risk factor for osteoporosis, There are several possible mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of osteoporosis
Vitamin D is the link between osteoporosis and obesity
As adipose tissue increase so that body mass rises in postmenopausal woman result in increased estrogen production when osteoclast inhibited the bone mass increase. High plasma insulin levels may lead to a variety of abnormalities such as androgen and estrogen overproduction which are sex hormone
As sex hormone increase as bone mass increase as decreasing in osteoclast activity as osteoblast activity increase Leptin which is secreted by adipocyte that regulates appetite and energy expenditure, Leptin deficiency increases bone growth and skeletal mass and also skeletal strength
Under some conditions of mechanical loading, a higher fat mass tends to decrease bone mass As adipocytes tissue increase may not protect against fracture.
Adipocyte & osteoblast originate from a common progenitor which is mesenchymal stem cells &their differentiation is regulated through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)Activated PPAR drives different action of mesenchymal stromal cells to adipocytes over osteoblasts. Bone morphogenetic protein & retinoic acid may cooperate to induce osteoblast differentiation of preadipocytes. Physical exercise prevents body fat accumulation while increasing bone mass
Studies show that high calcium intake may promote weight or fat loss, Milk is a good source of highly absorbable calcium, and milk intake may increase peak bone mass in puberty & slow bone loss, and decrease the incidence of osteoporotic fracture in the elderly. Menopause is associated with increased bone loss, so an increase in fat mass and lean mass will decrease.
Bone marrow adiposity increases with age so this might be associated with greater fracture risk. Adipokinase has an effect on dysregulation for mesenchymal cells, as a result, the production of adipocyte and osteoblast production will reduce as well as bone mass will decrease. With aging: the composition of bone marrow tends to favor the presence of adipocyte, osteoclast activity rise, osteoblast function is reduced, resulting in osteoporosis.
In the end, there are several new studies are searching to find the relation between obesity and osteoporosis.