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Controversy in Defining Terrorism

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The controversy surrounding the definition of terrorism is based upon the fact of determining the use of violence as directed to whom, by whom and for which reasons. The use of violence against civilian is both common to state and non-state groups in order to achieve political end. The actors as part of geo- political agenda or part of larger military often carry out the acts of terrorisms.

From the code of Federal Regulations of United States defines terrorism as the unlawful use of violence and excessive force against civilians or property in order to coerce a government and the civilians that is politically or socially motivated. Contrarily to it, the Federal Emergency Management Agency definition indicates that terrorism is the illegal force or violence for the purpose of intimidation, ransom or coercion that is not necessary driven politically.

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State terrorism, which is terrorism acts conducted by, established governments whereby it encourages and funds terrorism against its own subjects or in support of international terrorism. It is controversial as a concept as that of terrorism itself as the act of targeting innocent civilians is problematic in distinguishing other forms of state security violence and state terrorism. In dictatorial regimes terrorize their own citizens where else democratic regimes use state terrorism to populations outside their geographical boundaries.

There is no conventional definition of terrorism as it is accompanied by the growing politicization of the concept by politicians and media outlets, which have led to different interpretations. However, there is a profiling of a specific religious group, the Muslims who are the caprices of terrorism. In most cases, any violent attack perpetrated by a Muslim is automatically deemed as an act of the rest of world.

Nations with different ideologies call militant that oppose their regimes as terrorists. Most critics accuse United State of terrorism for helping Israeli occupation where other repressive regimes willing to terrorise own citizen to maintain power. Therefore the controversies in defining terrorism.

Discuss the relationship between feminism and human security

Feminism is a movement that calls for the equality of both men and women, which includes equal opportunities in personal, political, social and educational opportunities for both sexes. The feminism movement have championed the campaign for women rights and protection.

Human Security is people centered approach that looks into the protection and safety of communities and individuals that requires freedom from fear, want and to live in dignity.

Mohammed (stated in Paradigm in conflict 2006, P296) indicates that if human security seeks to achieve social justice, it must reduce not only gender inequality but also the multiple social inequalities experienced by women based on their race, class, gender and geographical location.

In this sense, women’s multiple experiences of inequality must be taken into consideration when formulating human security policies. An intersectional perspective of the human security tries to imply that women should move from being the subject of discussion to being good agents of transformative change.

Human security main target the issues of gender injustices and impunity by making sure that future peace agreements should not give amnesties for gender injustices.

Human Security Now implicitly targets issues of gender injustice and impunity by making the extremely important point that future peace agreements should not grant amnesties for gender-based crimes. There is a campaign of eliminating gender disparity of schooling girls in countries experiencing civil.

The UN Security council recognises the links between security and women and that women and girls were especially vulnerable during conflict, and that they experience gender-based violence such as rape, enforced prostitution and trafficking. However, the report does not indicate the report, however, could have improved its analysis by highlighting differential impacts of sexually transmitted diseases upon girls and women and the relationship between their unequal status and the personal and political violence that they experience. Finally, the report could emphasize how women’s reproductive security affects other kinds of security, such as food security. In discussing hunger, water, and control of natural resources, a feminist analysis would point to the relationship between gender discrimination, power inequities, and girls and women’s human insecurities.

Baines observed that, “Feminists offer not only important data on the security of the individual but also fresh new perspectives into the nexus of the individual and structures of violence at the local, national and global level.” Feminist critiques of threats to women and girls’ human security consequently raise awareness about missing pieces within the prevailing human security discourse.

Inger Skjelsbaek, although supportive of the importance of feminist security analyses, questioned whether feminist concepts of human security are viable. She observed that women’s experiences and identifications contain considerable diversity and noted that not all women are subordinate to men. Contemporary feminist analyses and critiques, however, are cognizant that experiences and perspectives vary according to ethnicities, race, class, sexualities, geographies, and culture.

Emerging trends of Human Security

Economic liberalization

Through the economic liberalization have brought integration of world market through multinational agreements that have led to extension of trade rules beyond the traditional areas. It has also led to the creation of World Trade Organisation, which have foreseen improved global impact on national economies. These changes have brought many job opportunism however it have created fierce competition of global market which as a result affected human security through job insecurity.

New information and communications technology

Advancing technological development process has accelerated to unprecedented levels in the past decades. The breakthrough have made global market integration in finance, investment and trade more a reality. These is due to fast information access, storage, processing and communication over long distance in real time.

Interactions among economic, political and technological forces

The three drivers have actively driven globalisation by ‘shrinking space, shrinking time and disappearing borders’ (Giddens, 1990). With fast technological forces have characterised the exchange of ideas as well as goods and services. There have been active exchange of trade, capital and culture values beyond national bounders

Global crime

Globalisation is facilitating many criminal operations where the criminals have been exploiting opportunism by disappearing borders of an integrated world. Criminals have built worldwide networks for money laundering and human trafficking. The spread of crime exposes people to threats to personal safety and financial ruin, among other consequences.

Human trafficking

There have been an increase in human trafficking where the soft targets are women and children from poor countries and communities. This has been brought about by corrupt government agencies who protect traffickers. To help curb the trafficking prevention should start with providing employment opportunism, access to education and put better border control.

Labour market instabilities and threats to job security

Due to high global market, competition and rapid technological changes have led new job opportunities. However, they have put pressure on labour market to be more flexible and to increase job insecurities for employees. Because of dynamic competitive markets requires employees to advance in education to be able to cop up with the advancements. Globalisation has also led change in demand labour leading to job insecurity

Advantages of Feminism

Leads towards self – love and respect

Women who have been abused, belittled, and disempowered as a child can regain their power through the ideologies of feminism. It will fulfil the assurance that life will become better upon stepping up and taking responsibility of one’s actions. Thus, it will open an opportunity to acquire self-respect and self-love.

Promotes sense of belonging

The nature of women aiming to look out for other women will result in a sense of belonging and community. In fact, many spiritual and secular women organizations based their ideologies from feministic activism and philosophy. Thus, it will provide a place for women with different orientations and nationalities to feel accepted.

Promotes relationship equality

Relationships that are defined by equality and freedom are considered healthy. This is when both partners perceive themselves as equals. Therefore, the relationship will be built based on mutual respect, instead of being dependent on control and indigence.

Feminism helps to promote equality in relationships

Women experience more equality and therefore more respect in their relationships. According to L. Rudman and J. Phelan (2007), men who date feminist women actually experience more stable relationships and greater sexual satisfaction. This is unsurprising because when both partners in a relationship perceive each other as equal human beings, the relationship is built on mutual respect, rather than on neediness or control.

Disadvantages

More children lack mothers care

The fact that women are unsatisfied if they do not become the breadwinner or the homemaker put them in a position where they earn a living for themselves. However, wives having this type of mentality tend to leave the care of their children to other people instead of taking care of their children themselves. Thus, it will leave children out of the love and care of a mother.

Difference between Male and Female

Women would want to believe that there is no difference between man and woman. However, the truth is that there are obvious differences. Nevertheless, the difference is not related to making either gender inferior or superior to the other.

Misunderstood Domestic Responsibilities

Due to the fact that feminism promote equality among men and women does not mean that their roles are interchangeable. Therefore, for mothers, it is their responsibility to bear a child and fulfils the role of a mother for the child. Motherhood is actually not a role that is purely feminine though. Rather, it is a responsibility as a person to complement that of their male counterparts.

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