Correlation Between Attitude and Time Management of Students

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There isn't any one right manner to manipulate our time; however; it is important to get to recognize ourselves, so, we can make good decisions about a way to use our time. Every individual has the same amount of time at their disposal; in fact, many complain they do now not have sufficient time. People who know the way to use their time in the ideal vicinity and at appropriate instances realize their priorities and make plans to understand them accordingly. Sabuncuoğlu and Tüz state that the time you feel is different from the time that clocks show. Although the time shown on the clock is linear and sequential, each second is not more valuable than the other. However, the time we feel and are experiencing is quality time. In the time referred to here it is not important how long it lasts; it is more important how much merit we obtain. As college students learn how to cope strategies that permit them to barter competing demands. Students are tasked to juggle the works' lifestyles stability without a great deal institutional help and the manner that higher education establishments are prepared tend to result in peaks and troughs inside the student workload.

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 During all these complicated developmental responsibilities, it is crucial for college kids to be successful in comprehending the significance of time, understanding habits associated with usage of time and changing wrong behaviours if they have evolved them, because, in an surroundings where recognition of time cannot be achieved, individual control over life also disappears, and development depends on coincidence and luck. Therefore, college students are required to organization their duties and to organization them in accordance with priorities. Time control is really self-control; that is, in addition to providing control over events we experience. As what numbers of research have found, and diagnosed positive effect of time control. Time control competencies had been proven to have a positive impact on pupil's getting to know and student outcomes ( Wang, Kao, Human, and Wu found that time management is important beyond the university campus, where the capacity to manage one’s free time is found to significantly increase an individual’s quality of life. O’Connell also suggests that the balance between sleep, exercise, and appropriate diet alongside an increase in “downtime” would lead to a decrease in student illness, therefore suggesting the link between time management a physical health. Without the development of effective habits, such as motivation, Meta cognition and self-regulation, students are likely to perform poorly and find it difficult to improve future performance. Students who are able to develop time management strategies and set appropriate work goals for themselves offer a self-regulatory framework. However, the ongoing problem of scarcity of knowledge in connection with time management and academic outputs is due to lack of easiness and costly ways of collecting data. Driven by this fact, particular emphasis has been paid in the modern education system to time management issues by evaluating student attitudes and behaviors related to time and its management. Based on the necessity of effective time management required from students during their academic and professional life, field research has been conducted in the present paper towards the aim of designating their position with respect to effective time management and determining the effect of their time management skills on students' performance in school.

“Time management” refers to making the most productive use of a set period of time in days, hours, weeks or months. In business, principle of time management is to use the time available effectively , to complete a project, a business deal or performed assignment wisely and to work “smarter, not harder” in order to get more accomplished within the stipulated period. For centuries, people used the general measurement of sunrise to sunset to gauge time, but with the development of the clock, attention began to focus on the hours within a day as well. By the 17th century, the clock had been

perfected and become so well-established in society that the French mathematician and philosopher Rene Descartes used the clock as a model for humanity in his writings.

But it was during the Industrial Revolution that the clock really came of age. Frederick W. Taylor6 an American engineer undertook the pioneering time and motion studies. He subjected each aspect of the work process to a stopwatch measurement, and then studied the results to look for ways to reduce the number of steps needed to accomplish a particular task or job. This concept of time management as something that managers did for line workers held sway until the 1930s, when managers began to find their own tasks so overwhelming that they too sought ways to manage time more efficiently.

In the 1930s Ivy Lee7, a management consultant initiated a simple “6- Step” process that became the standard for measuring the productivity of managers. Managers needed only to list the six most important things to be done that day, in order of importance the most important being first. Then, the manager was to work on those tasks in order, not proceeding from one task to the next until the preceding task had been accomplished.

Time management was introduced in the 1950s as a means of dealing with job-related time issues. From the 1950s to the early 1980s, time management garnered widespread attention. In response, there were numerous books and programs developed during the ‘60s, ‘70s, and ‘80s promoting various time saving strategies. But these programs addressed time management in general terms, without hard data to back up proposed solutions.

After World War II, studies of management began to broaden to look at time management in all aspects of business and life. Use of time became a focal area of management seminars in the 1960s and 1970s.

A study of “a cross-cultural investigation of time management practices and job outcomes”, explored the generalizability of prior findings of time management and their influence on key job outcomes in different cultures.

Time management is used as a competitive tool by both individuals and organizations in Western cultures, where time is viewed as a commodity to be controlled. In these Cultures, it is commonly believed that time management practices will positively Influence key job outcomes such as job performance, job satisfaction, job stress and health.

However, empirical evidences on the positive effects of time management have been limited to Western cultural environment. There are Asian, African, Middle Eastern and Latin American cultures where perception of time is conservative in nature and therefore, the meaning of time is defined as a temporal perception and may be quite different than in Western cultures such as in the United States. This raises the question of whether or not time management practices positively impact job outcomes in cultures where time is viewed differently. In this connection, the ability to generalize the claims of time management to non-western is yet to be fully investigated.

Additionally, a widely discussed cultural dimension of temporal perception that is theorized to lead directly to temporal behavior is whether time is viewed as either “monochromic time” (M-time) or ‘polychromic time” (P-time).

M-time cultures view time as linear and separable capable of being divided into units and therefore emphasize doing 'one thing at a time.' In contrast, P –time cultures view time as naturally re-occurring, and therefore emphasize doing 'many things at one time.'

M-time typifies most North Americans, Swiss, German and Scandinavians as, individuals with an M-time orientation are task-oriented, emphasize promptness and a concern for other's privacy, stick to their plans and are accustomed to short term relationships with other people. P-time cultures include Japanese, Middle-Easterners, Latin Americans and people from South Asia who view time as a system where the same events occur in natural cycles.

Within the time management literature, time stressors can be highly detrimental when experienced on a daily basis and they are experienced differently in different national cultures. Some cultures have an orientation towards a short time horizon in which time stressors are more prevalent, for example, in Philippines, the United States, Ireland, Brazil, India and Australia.

In long time horizon areas such as Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Sweden, Portugal and Austria, the immediacy of time demands is less prevalent. Long term planning and time extended horizons make time stressors very different.

Americans are more inclined to park a day full of short- term activities, each of which has a completion point. On the other hand, Polynesian or Japanese people may have a busy day, but their orientation is less towards immediate task completion than long term wholeness.

From above, we understand that time management is a perpetual topic among researchers and specialists. There is no general agreement about what time mean as it is. Time is seen from psychological perspective as a mental construct which compares the perception of time to “clock” time. Sociological research views time as a social construct and a convenience that cultures agree on. Behavioral research attempts to predict what individuals might do, their motives for thinking about time in certain ways and their related behavior.

Generally, different countries and cultures have different perceptions and the experience and use of time is universal, but the way in which time is experienced and used differs across individuals and social institutions.

A number of studies have identified the positive impact of time management. Time management skills have been shown to have a positive impact on student learning and student out-comes states that It is believed that time management is an ability that can be developed at any age, if the person desires to improve the results of his actions. The various group of students who exploited time-saving proficiencies notably had high academic performance rather than students who don't use time saving technics they have low academic compared to the students who employ time management tactics this study of marcanlioulu 2010 was second dead by express that time management practices show the way not only to a high level of academic performance, but to great physical condition and lower levels of stress.

Wang, Kao, Huan, and Wu in their study also found that time management is important beyond the university campus, where the capacity to manage one’s free time is found to significantly increases an individual’s quality of life. O’Connell (2014) also suggests that the balance between sleep, exercise, and appropriate diet alongside an increase in “downtime” would lead to a decrease in student illness, therefore suggesting the link between time management a physical health.

According to the Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary time is defined as a period either long or short, during which you do something or something happens while management is defined as the act or skill of dealing with people or situation in a successful way.

For Ibid Adejo 2012 he addresses in his research that the following are the attributes of time management.

The term “time management” became familiar in the 1950’s and 1960’s as referring to a tool to help managers make better use of available time. The tool was based on practical experience, in the form of do’s and don’ts. The term appears to indicate that time is managed but actually activities are managed over time. Time management is self-management with an explicit focus on time in deciding what to do; on how much time to allocate to activities; on how activities can be done more efficiently and on when the time is right for particular activities.

Time management is focused on solving problems. Examples of common problems are; being unable to deal with distractions, deadline pressure, procrastination, lack of self-discipline, ambiguity of personal goals, not being able to say “no”, excessive social relations, in determination, perfectionism, and messy desk.

So, make your list, determine what you are committed to doing, and put these items in the appropriate place in your time management system.  these are carried out (e.g., using a contingency plan, withdrawing to a quieter working space). It would be worth investigating whether and how the current techniques fulfill these functions and what can be done to optimize their effects. Time-management theory might also inspire the development of additional techniques.

Concerned with optimizing the use of our discretionary time. It is important to realize that the available amount of time is constant and all that we can change is the way we utilize this time. If we take time management seriously, we can break loose from this bondage and pack more in the available amount of time. We need to alter our habits and our attitude in order to derive the maximum utilization of the limited time at our disposal. Because, wasted time can never come back. Time management for students includes setting realistic goals and deadlines for our self-regarding major assignments. Make sure that we are not putting our self in situations where we cannot meet our deadlines; this will only add to our stress and make tasks more difficult to complete. Now people need their     

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