Cosmology: the Big Bang Theory


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 In almost all Religions, it is believed that the creator started this world, everything was created by the creator of this universe. But the question is that if it started then, the creator come from where to create this world. So, was there any time ahead of time? This is the question that has been arising in the minds of scientists, philosophers and people like us for the last 5000 years. Then a scientific discovery that took place in the 1920s revealed that the time began from where and what happened before that? 

It was done by him Edwin Hubble. From the top of Mount Wilson mountain in Southern Californian, Hubble made a very strong Telescope. This was the Hooker 101 ‘telescope. After seeing the sky from this, he became the first to describe the true scale of the universe. Hubble noticed that tiny little patch in the foggy sky are not the clouds of gases, rather than those are galaxies. In the Universe their numbers are not in millions, but in several thousands of Millions. This discovery was very important and after seeing them, Hubble came to a great conclusion. The universe is expending. Every galaxy is going far away from one another. If we take this picture back in time and bring all the calculations to a moment, we will get an infinitely small, infinitely dense start of the universe. scientist gave this initial state a name ‘Singularity’ There was no question of when and where before Big Bang. If we take the time ahead of that singularity, then we get ‘BIGBANG’ It was such a blast of Energy and Matter that made everything that we are seeing today. Space and time also made from that. When the whole radiation and matter spread in different directions, then our universe slowly started cooling down. Matter joined each other due to gravity and stars were born and then they collapsed. 

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Later, the spheres of sand and stone pellets started to accumulate around the new stars. And then after some few millions year of Big Bang, we got a home like Earth. This mind-blowing story became a new faith. But despite being a very strong, the Big Bang was just a theory. 40 years later this story got a proof. In 1964 when two Radio Astronomers Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias were studying the microwave of the sky in Bell labs built on the hill of Crawford Hills. For this, they had made a radio telescope so that they could use the radio wave in microwave communication. they made the telescope so good that no noise could come from the background. But again, and again a mysterious noise was interfering with their radio signals. Both made every effort, cleaned the antenna, cooled the receivers with liquid helium but the noise kept coming. Even after all the efforts, when the noise did not stop, they felt that the noise was coming from outside the galaxy. 

After talking to other scientists, Wilson and Penzias came to the conclusion, that the same voice coming from every corner of the sky meant that it was a light echo of a big cosmic event. After 40 years of speculations and calculations by scientists, both of them came to the conclusion, that this noise was in the time of the universe. That noise was remaining radiation of heat after Big Bang. It was named Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. With this, the picture of the birth of Space and time began to emerge. For the sudden discovery of that Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, both of those radio astronomers received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2006. to see the picture of the time of the birth of the universe We needed a rocket In 2001 NASA launched the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, that is, WMAP so that scientists can take pictures of the birth of the universe. Two years later WMAP resulted it gave a very clear picture of the newly created universe, which was only 380 thousand years old at that time. The WMAP picture is a picture of the remnant radiation left over from the time of the birth of the universe. But there is still a question, what happened between the Singularity and the WMAP picture of 380 thousand years later?

 The colors in the WMAP picture are very vibrant, which shows that there was a slight difference in the temperature of the universe. This means that after the Big Bang, the universe is very smoothly expended. But if the Big Bang was a tremendous explosion of energy and matter, then the universe should have been very uneven and messy. Because of conventional explosion, things get scattered here and there. This puzzle was explained by Alan Guth’s Cosmic Inflation theory. Cosmic Inflation happened when anything is made of nothing, after about a millionth fraction of 1 second. Then at that moment the highly compressed space that was created also had a force field. At that time the universe was very small and at a very small level, gravity is of repulsive nature. Due to which the universe started expending. 

This expansion was not like a conventional explosion at one point but expanding every single point of space. This can be understood by a balloon. When air is filled in the balloon, the entire balloon expands, everything made on the balloon goes away from each other. After a very small fraction of a second, the universe became about 1 million times larger. When inflation merged with Big Bang, it became a 3 act play. In Act-1 suddenly a singularity came from somewhere which had no time and all the energy of our universe was contained inside this one dot. in Act-2, Due to inflation Suddenly the space began to expand very fast. There was a very smooth expansion in which the energy was spreading very little and everything was spread in the universe.

 In Act-3 The universe cooled down. Because of the force of matter gravity, they joined and made stars, galaxies and planets. In this way, Big Bang is not a big explosion, but is a theory of today’s universe becoming expanded from singularity. Most scientists accept this theory. But it is not necessary that this should happen. Actually no one saw this happening. 

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