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Current Advances in The Development Of The Neuroprosthetic Device

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To live in a world without machines is not simple to imagine. Without even the simplest machines, some everyday tasks would be nearly impossible to complete. Whenever a person is handicapped and does not have the access to both of their biological arms, technology in the use of machines is necessary help these people. Neuroprosthetic is a prosthetic limb and the solution to whenever a bing has lost their biological limb due to a illness, incident, or injury. The most usual cause of having to get a certain limb amputated is the spinal cord injury. Whenever the spinal cord gets injured the brain can suffer from certain failings in keeping the connection between the brain and the limbs nerves that is needed to keep the limb moving. When the arm has to be amputated the patient feels the fear of never being able to use that particular limb again. Scientists have proven their fear wrong by introducing the brain computer interface combines with the functional electrical system, which was designed to send the brain its signals to the neuroprosthetic.

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When the spinal cord gets damaged, it can cause serious brain problems. The spinal cord injury (SCI) is the most usual cause of the paralysation of limbs all over the world. Damage to the spinal cord can cause temporary or permanent damage to its function. One of the symptoms includes the loss of muscle function, which if permanent the limb needs to be amputaded. Studies have proven that fifty-three percent of the injuries which lead to the spinal cord injury are due to motor vehicle accidents, the remaining forty seven percent of the causes of the spinal cord injury are mostly due to sport injuries, or other everyday tasks. Even though the limb might be paralysed the brain and the limb muscles still remain active. Multiple patients who suffer from the spinal cord injury are not only struggling with the more natural and controlled limb movements but also bladder, bowel and sexual functions can be a problem. Neuroprothestic is an prosthetic limb which enables control of arm muscle contraction in a paralysed human. (science. howstuffworks. com).

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The neuroprothestic which combine a brain computer interface (BCI) with a functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore the patients control of there amputated limb. The brain computer interface combined with the functional electrical stimulation method has been scientifically proven correct by to many scientifically tested studies. The brain computer interface (BCI) is a design to create a collaboration between a brain and a neuroprothestic device, which enables the device to pick up all signals sent from the brain to the machine, this system is used for the neuroprothestic limbs. The technology was developed for animals in the mid-1970s. During the 1980s the brain computer interface technology, a particular type of human computer interface (HCI) was designed. (whatis. techtarget. com). The functional electrical system (FES) was first developed in the United States in the 1960s, where it was created for stroke patients, since a stroke can also lead to the paralysation of limbs. Although the results were positive, there were not many patients wanted to test this method because it was seen as more of an experimental treatment then a solution.

During the mid-1980s a student group from Salisbury, United Kingdom started using the treatment for people with spinal cord injuries. (www. mstrust. org. uk). The functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a design which applies small electrical nerve charges to a muscle which has become paralysed. This treatment stimulates the muscle to make its usual movement when the brain is trying to control it. Applying the functional electrical system to restore movement after the spinal cord injury is challenging because of changes that happened in the muscle tissue. The muscles in this part of the body have not been receiving as much movement input from the brain as before, therefor the muscles have lost its strength. One of the other most commonly seen causes in the paralysations is Multiple sclerosis (MS). Multiple sclerosis is a, incurable disease of unknown origin.

In the Netherlands one in the thousand people suffers from this illness. When a person suffers from the illness their immune system attacks a material called myelin, which wraps around your never to protect them. When this outer shell had disappeared the nerves become damaged. This damage mean that the brain can not send the signals through your body correctly, which makes the patient incapable of having the usual control over their limbs. This disease is not curable, which automatically concludes that while the illness gets worse the less control the patient will have over their body also increases. Most neurostimulation devices try to restore the precise function of a limb while using switches, keyboards or joysticks. Although the studies on the brain computer interface combined with the functional electrical system have proven that the paralysed human will be able to use their prosthetic limb for the basic movements, they are not as far developed to be able to make more natural and complex movements. (science. howstuffworks. com)Scientist who help the patients suffering from they paralysed limbs they are currently very busy creating a more natural control of preciseness in their hand work, which is most important for patients.


The neuroprosthetic devise has been developed unto an extend of which the patients is not yet able to use it into every detail and movement they appreciate to. Everyday the patients suffering from illnesses such as Multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or other causes of their paralysed limbs still do suffer from not being able to see result they would appreciate to when trying to control their limbs movements. The brain computer interface (BCI) combined with the functional electrical stimulation (FES) method, has been designed for the patients to get back the control over their nerve systems by the use of machines. (whatis. techtarget. com). The method stimulated the brain to send signals to their limb, which is correctly activated by applying small electrical never charges. Patients have been patiently waiting to see the improvement of the neuroprothestic limb, because getting back control over every part of their body is what is most important to them.


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