The survey report obtained indicated that there has been substantial growth in the higher educational sector over the past two decades. According to the data, out of the 22 sampled universities, 18 were established between 1998 and 2011. The trend shows that most universities were set up after 1998 civil war then later slowed down 2005 to 2009 where only two universities were set up. More universities were later established and are still being established. From the survey, most universities sampled were based in Hargesia location.
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The school enrolment in 2016 increased to 12, 366students from 5,558students in the previous year with approximately 21% more boys than girls. This has been a continuous trend over the past 11 years. Research shows that only one quarter of women in Somali aged 15 years to 24 years are literate verses 37.8 males.
The year 2016 was then affected by various calamities such as floods, drought and internal conflicts. The El Nino rainfall experienced in the month of May left many homeless with severe drought and approximately 5 million Somalis in need of humanitarian assistance. Approximately two hundred institutions including the primary and secondary schools were closed and more than 45000 children were directly affected.
Further, in the month of October, 90000 people were displaced as a result of the armed conflict by the alshabab and over 18 schools closed. As the year came to an end, several schools lacked clean water for consumption due to drought and the school latrines were in poor conditions. Poverty increased in the region and thus parents were unable to raise fee that was used to pay the teachers and run the school. This resulted to 34.8% decrease in students enrolment in the year 2017. Universities directly affected by the 2016 calamities included Hargesia university, Edna Adan university, Admas university, civil service university, New generation university, Rift valley university, Beder university, Togdheer university, Shifo university, Timacade university and Berbera University as no student enrolled.
Approximately, 58.76 % students enrolled in three universities: Hargesia University (28.06%), Golis University (12.5%) and Amoud University (18.2%).Abaarso university, Berbera marine university and Shifo university registered the least number of students despite being established in the late years. However, the alpha university and the Beder universities, though formed in 2011, have shown great positive progression. Faculty distribution among surveyed Higher Education Institutions Over the years, there was a worrying concentration on specific disciplines with approximately one third of all students enrolled in information technology (IT) and business administration courses. Later on different courses were introduced in the universities. These courses included agriculture and health science, economics and management science, medicine, sharia law, nursing and midwifery, computer science, four offered business administration, accounting, engineering, dentistry, livestock and health science, public health. Courses such as education, project management, social science, dryland agricultural economic management, global studies and inter relations, human resource management, nautical science, marine engineering, fisheries and marine science, port and shipping management, pharmacy and post graduate studies and research.
In the year 2017, there was a great transition as students registered for various course. Most students enrolled in computer science, business administration, economics and management course, sharia and law course, engineering and human resource management course. According to the survey, business administration course had been viewed a necessity in the day to day activities and there been availability of Professional teachers was easily offered. Courses such as Sharia law, nautical science, port and shipping management had available resources such as ships and ports required for the course. Additionally, some institutions regarded fisheries and marine science as courses that promoted Agriculture and they been marketable, created the need to be offered.
Last but not least, some communities acknowledged livestock farming as the backbone of the economy and therefore needed educated quality professionals. Due to the demand, some institutions offered livestock and veterinary courses to produce experts on range management, water conservation and extension services. Human resource management was a newly introduced course and was on merit for further considerations despite it registering the highest number of student enrolment. Courses such as pharmacy, dentistry, project management and dry land agricultural economic management registered the least number of students as they were offered by one university.
The Veterinary department registered seven teaching staffs (two PHD holders, 3 masters’ holder and two degree holders) and four technicians. Among the seven lecturers, four had benefited from scholarships or were under Scholarships. Similarly, Dry land Agricultural Economic Management department with a total of eight lecturers (least qualified at masters’ levels) and one technician, had two lecturers that were under scholarship. The two departments had a total number of 12 Somali lecturers, six Kenyans and one Ethiopia lecturer that explained their diversity. The Business department consisted thirty five lectures whose least qualifications were master’s degree. The health and science department registered twenty nine lecturers, computers science department twenty two lecturers, social science department eighteen and marine and shipping department had fourteen whose least qualification was master’s degree. Other courses had 150 Lecturers whose least qualification was Bachelor’s degree and several masters’ holders. The analysis also indicated that most of the students were neutral in terms of preparedness for the course with three institutions indicating that they were very well prepared. The ease of finding a lecturer was neutral or easy with exemption of courses such as Marine Engineering, Fisheries and Marine Science, Port and Shipping Management and Nautical Science where finding the right personnel was very challenging. To ensure that learning or training standards were maintained in the university, exam evaluation was carried out and an analysis of performance would be presented. This enhanced efficiency in skills impacted in the students and thus the students would ready fit in the labor markets.
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