Different Ways How Immigrants Help the Economy

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“Remember, remember always, that all of us, and you and I especially, are descended from immigrants and revolutionists.” ― Franklin D. Roosevelt

Basically, what Franklin Roosevelt meant in this quote is that immigration is not wrong, and that people of the U.S ,this case, shouldn’t judge immigration because they are mostly descendants from immigrants. But what is immigration you may ask? Immigration is when people from one country move to a foreign country to live on it. According to the United Nations : The total number of migrants in the year 2017 reached 258 million, it grew up from 2010 that was 220 million, 80 million of the migrants live on Asia, 78 million live on Europe, 58 million on the U.S, Africa hosts 25 million of migrants, South America and Central America host 10 million migrants and Oceania hosts 8 million. People usually immigrate because of multiple factors, the most usual is because of economic factors, in other words their countries do not provide jobs for them, and if they do, they do not satisfy the persons needs, another reason why people migrate is because of political instability, some people prefer to live in countries that have a political system that is democratic and that encourages people to decide for themselves, other reason why people immigrate is because of environment, maybe a person prefers to live in a place that has hot climate, or cold, or they prefer to live in a country that is quiet and calm, in other words people choose the country that they feel the most attracted to . Immigration brings people from one country to another and these people bring their own culture into this foreign countries, they bring their religions, their traditions, their lifestyle and they adapt it to the new country, this is why immigration affects the foreign country in a positive aspect and in a negative aspect, the positive aspect is that they bring new culture to the foreign country and make it diverse which makes people more tolerable and open to others and the negative aspect that this brings is that the culture of the country gets displaced and is not as influent as it was before the migrants. There are many reasons why society has changed due to immigration in multiple countries such as the United States and even entire continents like Western Europe.

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The first thing that immigration is changing in society, in big countries and in entire continents like western Europe is the Economy. According to multiple sources the immigration makes the economy better for the host country,for example the World Bank says the international migration increases the GDP (Gross domestic product) of the country where the people migrate because it allows each person to work on what they are better at, in total immigration increases the annual value to the economy of up to 72 billion each year.

The economy of the country is also benefited because people that come from other countries have a different perspective of things, many of the immigrants are entrepreneurs and they bring new and innovative business ideas to the countries which help the economy get better, they generate new job openings, make the market bigger, and make buisnesses more flexible. Another way in which immigrants benefit the economy is that they don’t usually depend on the state, because immigrants are of working age mostly and they go to the country seeking for a job, in other words the state doesn’t have to spend money on them. By being on a working age the immigrants contribute more on taxes than they take out from the state.

The relationship and theories between immigration and violent crime exist in large amounts among sociologists, economists, and political scientists about the causes. Some speculations are stronger than others. But there’s no real agreement among scholars about what caused the crime decline, but a trend might be associated with larger immigration.

According to The FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, which is a nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of nearly 18,000 city, university and college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes. From statistical data, in the early 1990s, U.S. crime rates had been on a steep upward climb since the Lyndon B. Johnson presidency. The crack-cocaine epidemic in the mid-1980s added fuel to the fire, and handgun-related homicides more than doubledbetween 1985 and 1990. That year, murders peaked in New York City with 2,245 killings. Politicians embraced tough-on-crime platforms and enacted harshly punitive policies. Experts warned the worst could be yet to come.

Then crime rates went down. And then they kept going down. By decade’s end, the homicide rate plunged 42 percent nationwide. Violent crime decreased by one-third. What turned into a precipitous decline started later in some areas and took longer in others. But it happened everywhere: in each region of the country, in cities large and small, in rural and urban areas alike. In the Northeast, which reaped the largest benefits, the homicide rate was halved. Murders plummeted by 75 percent in New York City alone as the city entered the new millennium.

The trend kept ticking downward from there, more slowly and with some fluctuations, to the present day. By virtually any metric, Americans now live in one of the least violent times in the nation’s history.

Some scholars like Alfred Blumstein(1998) have suggested that, contrary to the claims of the classic Chicago School, large immigrant populations might be associated with lower rather than higher rates of criminal violence. A limitation of the research in this area is that it has been based largely on cross‐sectional analyses for a restricted range of geographic areas. Using time‐series techniques and annual data for metropolitan areas over the 1994–2004 period, we assess the impact of changes in immigration on changes in violent crime rates. The findings indicate that violent crime rates tended to decrease as metropolitan areas experienced gains in their concentration of immigrants. This inverse relationship is especially robust for the offense of robbery. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that the broad reductions in violent crime during recent years are partially attributable to increases in immigration.

The United States imprisons more people than anywhere else in the world, both in relative and total numbers. It seems logical that fewer criminals are on the streets as a result of tough-on-crime policies from that era.

Reasonable as it might sound, the research turns out to be far less conclusive. A panel from the National Academy of Sciences looked at the existing research for its landmark 2012 report on the American prison system. They concluded that “on balance,” higher incarceration rates had a “modest” effect on the decline. But they also cautioned that a lack of clear evidence means any benefits were “unlikely to have been large.”. The panel also found little indication of a deterrent effect. Most offenders reach a point when they age out of criminal behavior, limiting the utility of mandatory minimum sentencing. For this reason, the academy’s report concluded lengthy prison sentences are “ineffective as a crime-control measure” in virtually all circumstances. Some research even suggests harsh prison conditions could make inmates more likely to reoffend.

Surely law enforcement and better policing played some kind of role in the decline. Let’s break that down further by policy. One of the most common responses to crime in the 1980s and early ’90s was to hire more police officers. In its analysis last year on the crime decline’s causes, the Brennan Center found “modest, downward effect on crime in the 1990s, likely 0 to 10 percent” from increased hiring of police officers. There’s also some scholarly consensus on the role CompStat, a crime-statistics tracking tool, played in improving police responses.

But other policing tactics appeared to have little impact, even in New York City, which led the innovative wave in the early  ’90s. Mayor Rudy Giuliani and NYPD Commissioner Bill Bratton credit their broken-windows-style reforms for crime’s sharp decline after taking office in 1994. But scholars are quick to note the trend actually began in 1990. Crime also continued to decline after the NYPD largely abandoned its controversial stop-and-frisk policy in recent years,

Immigration accounts for just a small share - about 5 percent - of the rise in overall U.S. wage inequality between 1980 and 2000 according to National Bureau of Economic Research.

A controversial topic for decades has been how does immigration affect the economic opportunities of American workers. This topic has become extremely important as approximately 1.25 million immigrants per year arrived in the United States between 2000 and 2005, with a third or more of them undocumented and with low education and skills. The impact of these new arrivals on native wages related to the widening U.S. wage gap between high- and low-skilled workers. In Immigration and Inequality (NBER Working Paper No. 14683), Research Associate David Card uses both cross-city and time-series data to show that immigration accounts for just a small share - about 5 percent - of the rise in overall U.S. wage inequality between 1980 and 2000. Card's results further support earlier research showing that the competitive effects of immigrant inflows are concentrated among the immigrants themselves. While the impact of recent immigrant inflows on the relative wages of U.S. natives is small, the effects of immigration on overall wage inequality (that is, among both immigrant and native workers) are larger than on wage inequality among U.S. natives alone. That reflects the concentration of immigrants in the very high or very low skill categories, and the higher residual inequality among immigrants than natives.

Immigrants in America work more, search for jobs more and get paid way less than native-born U.S. citizens. They're a big chunk of the U.S. job market too. Documented and undocumented immigrants make up nearly 20% of America's labor force, according to a report by Goldman Sachs (GS). Immigrants have a lower unemployment rate (4.3%) than native-born U.S. citizens (4.9%). They also participate more in the economy, meaning they're either working or looking for work. But they make far less than native-born citizens. Immigrants weekly income is about $681. Native-born Americans earn $837 a week, according to Goldman.

Immigration is a major factor in the economy's ability to grow more jobs, policymakers say. Moody's Analytics economist Mark Zandi estimates that 77% of the potential job gains under an economic plan would come from immigration reform. Clinton has called for a pathway to citizenship for undocumented workers and visas for high-skilled foreign workers.

Increasing the U.S. population is one key factor to creating more jobs and immigrants play a major role. According to the Pew Research Center, immigrants have made up 40 to 50% of the population gains in recent years.  

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