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DISCRIMINATION OF TRANSGENDERS IN LABOUR MARKET AND ORGANIZATIONAL SETTING

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Abstract

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Trans genders is a person who is assigned a gender according to their body. transgender do not Identify with the gender .they were assigned with the way society expects them to express such gender through clothes ,gestures ,mannerism and other characteristics .consequently trans gender people constantly face structural prejudice and discrimination and commonly expressed through the term trans phobia. whether in all sectors of society for not fitting into dominant gender discourse .

Discrimination and issues of stereotyping and marginalizing are some common and routine based attitudes trans genders face in daily life, exclusion of trans genders from labor market forces them to beg on signals and live a poor life in constant depression. Interview based research will be conducted to address the issues of regular discrimination of trans genders in the slums of Lahore to get an insight in the daily life of transgenders to raise and lift up their voice. This study will try to raise their voice through transformative worldview so flexible and pleasant policies would be taken to remove stereotyping and discrimination in the face of public policies and decrease the regular negativity from the minds of transgenders.

Introduction

If we look at countries in South Asia such as Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, trans genders are heavily marginalized and does not get any opportunity from getting education to step into professional life. Talking mainly about Pakistan because that’s where my the focus of my study will be, trans genders are not encouraged to get education, their parents, if by luck does not abandon them, does not want them to publicized in the area where they live. Government do little in this regard, though every several years a bill gets passed such as issuance of National Identity Card, Passport and driving license, nothing significant has been done in this regard. A quick action is direly needed to be taken in this regard by policy makers and the society as well. Enough of literature has been published in this regard in context of America and other European countries. Mental resistance is shown in when such groups get marginalized by several policy makers and police department in context of Pakistan (Nisar, 2018). If we go more objective in this regard such as looking into medical articles on the mental capabilities of trans genders (Rumens, 2017) explained that different genders may have different traits and consistency in traits but this does not generalize them being less capable of performing well than a male or even a female. He argued that transgenders may exhibit different qualities but they have same mental capability like males and females, though marginalization and fewer opportunities can make them lack this capability but if given equal opportunity, transgenders can benefit the economy as whole.

This ongoing issue needs to addressed and there is less study in this regard in the context of Pakistan where this issue is needed to be answered and the voice of this group is needed to be raised, transgenders should be provided with equal opportunity and this will help both the society as whole and the economy. There is lack of study in the topic on lifting up the voices of transgenders in the region of Pakistan and in the context of professional life and career of transgenders as (Shan, Fu, & Zheng, 2017) noted that including transgenders in the economy and letting them participate in the organizational activities and letting them take part in building the economy as whole is beneficial. As according to census of Pakistan and a report comprised on it by(Licciardi, Waitmann, & de Oliveira, 2015), there are more there are more than 10,000 transgenders living in the country which makes 0.24% of the population as the whole, out of which more than 75% of that population lives In urban area, if given them equal opportunity in education and setting up a career and providing them job will be prosperous for the economy of Pakistan. Since these numbers are already mentioned, this research will not only help in boosting economy but on humanitarian grounds help in lifting and raising the voice of this group. According to World Bank, per person contribution in GDP in Pakistan is almost $1500 and adding that amount to GDP by transgenders will help the economy a lot. While lifting up the voice of transgenders will help in the well-being of the transgenders and this is the main focus of this study.

Purpose Statement

This purpose of this study is to focus on the issues transgender community face and the central phenomena of this study is to learn the participants in depth and generate findings from it which will help in lifting up the voice of the transgender community, in the shape of this research and the purpose is to have a long term outcome and have positive objectives for the transgender community. In depth Interviews of 15 to 20 transgenders in the slums of Lahore will be taken to address and explore the basic discrimination transgenders through transformative perspective face in their daily life.

Research questions

  • What are the constraints trans genders face in the labor market and organizational setting?
  • Are employers allowed to intitule dress code according to the gender?
  • What kind of employment protection do transgender employees have?
  • How are trans gender people covered by existing sex discrimination laws?
  • Research objectives

  • To address the issues transgenders face in labor market and decrease it
  • To decrease the issues transgenders face while making a career
  • To lift up the voice of this marginalized group through transformative lens

Research problem

As we all witness in our day to day life that how transgender community is radicalized and penalized by our own society. We all belong to this society and as male and females have equal opportunity in the labor market and for organizations, it is hour of need the we must consider transgenders as an important part of our society and they shall be seen as a valuable asset for our country and economy as well. Transgenders are forced to beg or to earn from prospects they either do not want to or forced to. The transgender community shall be given equal rights in terms of enrolment in schools and gaining education and to step up and work for the organizations or to be entrepreneurs to earn their respectful livelihood.

Literature Review

There is a dire need to make people aware and educate in regard to discrimination of LGBTs (my focus is on transgenders) in academic and professional life and these issues are needed to be addressed. As addressed in their writing about constrains and problems transgenders face in daily life, mainly in professional life while looking for a job and working in organization (Robinson, Van Esch, & Bilimoria, 2017). More and more effort and work is needed in this regard and accepting transgenders in professional life. Transgenders are overlooked in the field of education and labor market and inclusion of transgenders is need of the hour.

In countries such as Brazil where people are not well aware and level of stereotyping is high, people tend to ignore transgenders in the market place as a working force. Transgenders are not recognized though they could add to the market. Being in BRICS, Brazil and other countries like Brazil need to look onto transgenders to add to its market capital (Baggio, 2017).

Transgenders face problems while in workplace such as employees not accepting them as their leaders, forces them to step down or demotivates them at work. Such instances also discourages trans genders to work harder and this even work as glass ceiling made my people’s prejudices (Fine, 2017).

Transgenders facing gender discrimination in organizations affect negatively on their physical and mental health and can decrease organizational commitment as well. As (DeSouza, Ispas, & Wesselmann, 2017) added that transgenders who face workplace discrimination put negative effects of emotional well-being and low productivity on them. People discriminate transgenders consciously or unconsciously can make transgenders by microagression and ostracism in workplace. As noted earlier, microagression is conscious or unconscious discrimination or brief and subtle insults towards a marginalized group and ostracism is rejection and ignorance from group to another making them feel out-group and different.

As well as, trans ganders are marginalized in organizations which in turn is disastrous for the economy of the state and country, for the community and organization as well, as transgenders can play important role in the well-being of the country’s economy as according to the longitudinal dataset of public firms in the U.S. during the period of 2002-2006 demonstrated by (Shan et al., 2017) firms which take measures in corporate sexual equality, i.e. treating every gender equally including women, transgenders etc., have a higher return on stocks, higher productivity of employees and higher valuation of market.

Such sexual harassment needs to be answered, even though as noted complains of sexual harassment of women has been decreased by 28% since 1999 but the issues of discrimination and harassment of transgenders and other genders needs to be explored and light should be put on this issue. (Quick & McFadyen, 2017)

As wrote in American context, transgenders face discrimination directly in the face of inflexible policies which in return discourages them to come into market as no steps are taken in this regard. (Lewis & Pitts, 2017) Positive policies could be opted in this regard and other than that some models and policies are also proposed by which could be taken in the organizational settings to decrease the discrimination of transgenders. Several models are proposed in this regard which can be implemented to deal with the rising problem. (Brewster, Velez, DeBlaere, & Moradi, 2012)

Emerging Problem

As I have noticed in the literature, the basic and emerging problem is that there are limited studies focusing on the transgenders in the market and organizations as whole as well as most of the studies are done by the quantitative approach but I want to have an in depth view about the problems of transgenders. Moreover these studies have focused on transgenders from either positivist or constructivist view but my focus will be more on lifting up and raising their voices for having long term positive outcomes for the community.

Methodology and Sampling

This qualitative research through the lens of transformative worldview will focus on in depth interviews of 15 to 20 participants selected through random sampling and results will be concluded on abductive reasoning. Other than that, queer theory will be the base of this study as this focuses on the problems transgenders face while in their day to day routine. Another point to be noted here is that as the transformative view of study suggests, this is a collaborative type of study which will incorporate transgenders while the interviews and data collection. After that, I will stay in touch with my participants with telephone and with their consent, to analyze the data and interpret the results. Data will be also validated through peer debriefing and also by keeping in touch with the transgenders and showing them results to increase the validity of the study.

Rationale for choosing qualitative approach

The views and in-depth knowledge on how they feel the discrimination can be explored better through qualitative research. Qualitative approach will help in exploring the instances of the discrimination and marginalizing which will assist and better answer the objectives and questions of this research.

Significance

This research will contribute in decreasing the discrimination of transgenders in whole. On a micro level this study will help transgender individuals feel more accepted and part of this society and also their wellbeing. On a macro level, this study will help the economy by adding human and mental capital to it boosting the economy as whole.

Ethical consideration

  • No interview shall be taken without the permission of the participants
  • No participant will be forced to sign the consent form
  • Results will be published without biasness and manipulation
  • Confidentiality of the participants shall be kept
  • No participant will be harmed

Limitations

  • Since there is limited study done in the context of Pakistan, validation could be questioned
  • The study will be lengthy as in depth interviews will be conducted
  • Participants may not express their feelings completely
  • More study could be done in this regard

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