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The Risk Assessment of the Influencers on the Ice Melting Rate

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Hypothesis

If ice cubes of the same size are put into different concentrations of Coca-Cola, then the ice cube in the beaker with the highest concentration of Coca-Cola will melt the fastest.

Aim

To investigate which concentration of Coca-Cola will melt the ice cube the fastest.

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Introduction

Water turns into a solid by its temperature being below 0 degrees Celsius and when it is taken out of the freezer the temperature of the ice cube starts to melt as the temperature outside of the freezer is warmer than in the freezer. The ice particles take heat energy from the warmer air or liquid. Therefore, the ice particles have enough energy to break apart into smaller particle arrangements, which is then the process of melting.

Materials

  • Teaspoon measure
  • 200ml measuring cup
  • Fridge and freezer
  • Thermometer
  • 6 glasses or beakers (bigger than 200ml)
  • 2 litres of Coca-Cola
  • 2 litres of water
  • 20 ice cubes with 3 tsp of water
  • Camera
  • Stopwatch
  • Heat proof gloves

Procedure

  1. A 20-cube ice tray was filled up with 3 teaspoons in each cube spot and was left in the freezer until it was frozen
  2. Then the different the percentages of Coca-Cola (0%,20%,40%,60%,80%,100%) and water were measured out in to 6 separate cups.
  3. The cups of liquid were then put in the refrigerator for 12 hours (or until they were the same temperature)
  4. Then one ice cube was put each cup using a thick glove to prevent the heat from hands affecting experiment
  5. The experiment was then timed to see how long it took for each ice cube to melt in the different concentrations of Coca-Cola.
  6. The experiment was repeated twice more to get a fair result and to get an average
  7. The data was then recoded in a table and then recorded on a graph.

Independent variables- the different concentrations of Coca-Cola that will melt the ice cube. The different concentrations are 20%(40ml), 40%(80ml), 60%(120ml), 80%(160ml), and 100%(200ml)

Dependent variables- total time for the ice cubes to melt.

Controlled variables- the temperature of the liquids and the beakers are the same, size and volume of ice cubes, same amount of combined liquids, and gloves being worn when transporting the ice cube, measurements of the Coca-Cola and water, making sure the temperature of the room is the same when conducting the experiment by keeping the room heater at a constant temperature throughout the experiment.

Table showing- measurements of the Coca-Cola and water in the beaker.

Discussion

The more Coca-Cola added to the water the longer it took for the ice cubes to melt in the cups. When there was 100% of Coca-Cola it took 46 mins to melt and when there was 0% it only took 21 minutes.

The reason that the ice cube in the glass with 0% Coca-Cola in it melted the quickest was because that the water got to room temperature quicker than all the other Coca-Cola solutions. The more water in the solutions meant that the ice cube melted quicker than others with more Coca-Cola in it. The Coca-Cola has a large amount of sodium in it compared to the plain water, and the adding sodium makes ice melt more slowly than it will in plain water. For ice to melt, chemical bonds that join with the water molecules have to be broken, breaking those bonds requires energy. The sodium in the Coca-Cola means that it takes a lot more energy to break the bonds than in plain water, this slows melting time for the ice cubes in the solutions with the Coca-Cola in them.

The errors in the experiment were due to the range of temperatures in the house. The fire was going during the experiment meant that the temperature of the house and the surrounding environment for the solutions varied throughout the experiment. Also, when the repeats of the experiment occurred, the temperature was also different. Another error in the experiment was that the Coca-Cola eventually de-carbonated before all the repeats had been completed. A large bottle of Coca-Cola was used in the experiment, so this meant that the bottle of Coca-Cola inevitably de-carbonated and this could’ve affected the melting time of some of the solutions. To stop the Coca-Cola from becoming de-carbonated next time, a can of Coca-Cola could be used to combat the Coca-Cola becoming de-carbonated mid-experiment.

Validity

Controlled Variables

The results alteration could’ve been affected by many variables. The experiment was designed to best accommodate the variation in results and the lengths of time it took to melt the ice cube in each concentration of Coca-Cola. An extensive list of controlled variables

Reliability

Repeat experiment

The experiment was made reliable through a number of repeats of the experiment. This created an average so the differences of the time It takes to melt in each liquid was compared against the other liquids.

Accuracy

Film

Filming the experiment improved the accuracy of the experiment because looking back on the footage of the experiment can show the mistakes that might have been made and is a good resource to look back on.

Stopwatch

Timing the experiment properly improved the accuracy of the experiment largely. A stopwatch was an accurate time keeping device and provided the results for the experiment which showed the end result of the whole experiment

Accurate Measurement Devices

It is important for all the measurements in the experiment too be accurate and proper. The teaspoon measurement was used as it is a small measurement device and was more accurate than larger measurement devices. A thermometer was used so that the temperature of the liquids will be the same, so the rate of melting was not affected. A 200ml measuring cup with 20ml measurement increments was used to make sure that the same amount of liquids was used to melt the ice so that the experiment is accurate. This created an even range of results and didn’t affect the time it took for the ice cube to melt.

Conclusion

According to the experiment, the ice cubes in the concentration of 0% Coca-Cola (independent variable) melted in the shortest amount of time (dependent variable). The slowest time for the ice cubes to melt was in the glass that had 100% concentration of Coca-Cola. So, the ice cubes that were put in a lower concentration of Coca-Cola melted the fastest compared to the ice in the higher concentrations of Coca-Cola.

The hypothesis was that the ice cubes in the highest concentration of Coca-Cola would melt the fastest. My results do not support my hypothesis. The experiment went well and there were no problems, except for the Coca-Cola going flat mid-experiment. This might of effected the experiments times for the glasses with the concentrations of Coca-Cola and also the repeats could’ve been effected as the experiment took a long time and this meant that there was a variation in carbonation for each repeat.

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