I remember living in Ghana and fearing that my country would contract the Ebola virus back in 2014 because most of their neighbouring countries had, thus it seemed inevitable that my country would soon be infected with it. The Ebola virus is very deadly and claimed 11,310 innocent lives between 2014 and 2016. Due to its recent outbreaks I believe it is important to learn more about this disease in order to always caution my family back home.
Ebola virus disease (EVD) formally known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a very rare yet highly severe, often fatal in humans (WHO) it mostly affects people as well as non human primate. The ebolavirus are negative stranded RNA virus, enveloped in a lipid membrane that belong to the filiovirdae family and mostly are prevalent to regions of west and equatorial Africa. The filovirus particle form long and in some cases branched filaments of varying shapes as well as short filaments that can measure up to 14000 nanometre in length a with a diameter of 80 nanometer. The virus finds itself in the ebolavirus genus which contains five species namely: There are five subtypes namely: Zaire, Sudan, Bundibuyfo, Tai Forest, and Reston each uniquely named after the location where the virus was identified. The first 3 subtypes have been responsible for the massive outbreaks in Africa.
Ebola is zoonotic meaning that it is easily able to spread between humans and animals. The manner in which the virus spreads is known as the spillovent even in such that the virus initially infected through the contact with an infected animal such a fruit bat or non human primate there are cases in wish the virus can be transmitted trough bushmeat after that it spread from person to person which then increase the poyential of it affecting a large of people t usually spreads thought broken skin or mucous membranes such as blood or fluid whe a person is sick or has died or objects that have been comanitared with body fluids such as vomit and feacess in Africa health worker have been infecrted in during the process of treating infected patients suspectes or convired with the ebola virs(who) it is usually transmitted by food yet there are instances in certain places the virus may spread through the handing and the consumption of bushmeat.
In the body, the virus target numerous types of immune cells that are the first line od defence against invasion .Ebola affects the dendritic cells hence preventing it from displaying the signl of infection on their surface to activat the t lymphocytes so the t cells do not respond to the infection so antibodies that depend on that are not activatene and the virus os able to replicate immediately and take over of the system very quickly .Ebole has the ability to inhibit interform which is a type of molecule cells use to hinder further biral reproduction in addition the ebola has a protein known as the VP24 that binds to and blockes a transport protein on the surface of immune cells that plays a vital role in the interferon pathway. Lymphocytes do not become infected however are ineffective as the virus os able to prevent the primary immune cells from putting up a fight to call the attention of the secondary immune ceels like the lymphocytes.
Ebola is seen as a deadly virus as it symptoms can be very misleading thus keeping the victims from seeking medical advice as they prevail as other disease. It is characterized by beginning with fever, headache and muscle pain, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and internal bleeding. It causes hemorrhaging
As the virus travels in the blood to new sites, other immune cells called macrophages eat it up. Once infected, they release proteins that trigger coagulation, forming small clots throughout the blood vessels and reducing blood supply to organs.
Currently there are no effective vaccines or treatments against Ebola but doctors to try to manage the symptoms by fluids and electrodes, oxygen, blood pressure medication, blood transfusions and treatments for other infections. It is important that more research is put into finding vaccines and medication to as this has proven to be a very deadly virus when it.