The study could be problems posed with researcher’s bias, as the study based only on a qualitative method, except for sampling and the instrument used for data collection. (Sutton, 2015) mentioned that collecting data could provide variation in perspective (triangulation) that is combination of two or more data sources, investigators, methodological approaches, theoretical perspectives, or analytical methods within the same study The convergence of quantitative-qualitative (mixed mode) approaches may aid in the triangulation’s result that brings many other possibilities to conclude research study to reduce researcher bias. Beside triangulation research approach, a systematic review (Qiaq and Lu, 2017) which is critically studying and synthesizing studies to maximize the research reliability can be use too.
The researchers’ role is important to consider when adopting any qualitative approach that may influence the data collected and the analysis process (Coe et al, 2017.However, an overview of the researcher role was not discussed, making one limitation of the theoretical basis of this study.The qualitative researcher need to describe relevant aspecst of self, including possible bias and assumtions, any expectation and experience to qualify their ablity to conduct a study (Coe et al, 2017).
Implication of the study for educational leadership
In essence, PLCs are a platform to cultivate professional growth and students’ achievement simultaneously (Many et al., 2012).But, the writer would argue that it is difficult to create good schools without good educational teachers’ leadership.
The PLCs ideas / concepts of allowing teachers to collaborate on their professional work, analyze students’ data, and assess students’ learning may facilitate educational leadership to improve and establish teaching-learning strategies. Study by Fullan (2014) eloquently explained the power of collaboration that people’s commitment to putting energy into actions designed to improve things, which is individual commitment.
It is imperative that educational leaders clearly recognize, communicate, and implement effective dimensions of PLCs for change sustainability. It is supported by a study of Johnson (2015) that educational leadership should have dimensions of PLCs of ; shared vision and mission, shared leadership, a focus on student learning, supportive conditions, and a culture that promotes shared practice (Fenwick, 2011). Additionaly, Chen et al (2016) emphasized that educational leaders are to understand that the work of PLCs, must also be data-informed, standards-driven, and focused on instruction.
Within their schools, educational leaders must have a clear idea on the PLCs’ purpose, and how the effort of such PLCs focal ideas and LRs will be revealed towards constant basis as a way to enhance success. By combining collective PLCs ideas of shared values, commitments, and actions to meet overarching goals, this ultimately impacts the school improvement efforts (Chen et al, 2016).
There are many sources of leadership within schools, but, principals remain the central source in moving schools forward (Johnson, 2010). But, the current educational reform demands more distributed leadership amongst schools and stakeholders to promote sharing value and work delegations. Consequently in PLCs, reforms in leadership models within schools have expanded teacher leadership opportunities the role of teacher leadership. Based on the work of Many et al (2012); Abdullah and Ghani (2014), principals can empower teachers by allowing them to engage in problem-solving of organizational conditions, and by increasing teachers’ communities’ involvement in school-based processes, these assisted in increasing shared decision-making in managerial responsibilities
The role of educational leaders must shift from being “representatives of change” to “leaders of change/ change agents.” In an effort to avoid role conflict, educational leaders must clearly communicate and support teachers within their schools by practicing various leadership styles, such as transformational and instructional leadership, but it must suit with PLCs elements. Wallace Foundation (2016) supported those leaders in PLCs evolution has occurred in three distinct waves over time in form of (a) formal roles, (b) instructional expertise, and (c) re-culturing based on collaboration and continuous learning.
Finally, to embarace educational innovation toward PLCs; educational leaders should shift their school’s culture by establishing a culture of collaboration amongst teachers and administrators, and providing support and encouragement for teachers. These may assist the development of teacher leadership, and PLCs ideas involvement will reduce the workloads somewhat that produce additional strain (Fullan and Hargreave, 2014).