Celebrity endorsement is highly effective to reform consumer purchase intentions. Many studies have shown that celebrity endorsers favorably influenced important advertising effectiveness measures such as attitudes toward the ad (AAD), attitude toward the brand (ABR) and purchase intention (PIN) (Atkin & Block, 1983; La Ferle & Choi, 2005; Petty et al., 1983). The principal task of celebrity endorser is to shift customer’s feeling regarding the celebrity to product and to change customer purchase intention (Jau-ShyongWang,Yen-Fen Cheng, and Yi-Ling Chu). Mowen, Brown, and Schulman (1980) pointed out that celebrity endorsers express their agreement with the product benefits in the advertisement to establish or reestablish consumer attitude toward a product.
Advertising appeal also aims to influence the purchasing decisions of the consumers. Belch and Belch (1998) trusts that advertising is used to attract consumer attention and influence their attitudes and emotions regarding a product or a service. Advertising appeal distinctly communicates interests, inspirations, and identities, or defines why consumers should consider or research the advertised products (Kotler& Armstrong, 2003).
Celebrity endorsement is not only used to grab customer’s attention but it also increase the sales of the product and improves product reputation in the market (Jau-ShyongWang,Yen-Fen Cheng, and Yi-Ling Chu). Exploratory studies reveal that impressive stunning and distinctive celebrity serves as a foundation to enhance feelings towards the advertisement. (Sadia Aziz, UsmanGhani, and AbdullahNiazi). Endorsement marketing is able to give a product new image and extra experience to customers and further increase product recognition (MacInnis, Rao, & Weiss, 2002; Laffery& Goldsmith, 1999; Goldsmith, Lafferty, & Newell, 2000).
Patzer (1983) finds that an attractive endorser can make consumers have better preference and purchase intentions, and a well-founded endorser can affect brand image, brand equity and purchase intention. In addition, Ohanian (1990) considers that a reliable advertising message consists of professionalism, authenticity, and glamour. Here authenticity means that endorsers are trustable. Dobni and Zinkhaml (1990) indicates that celebrity endorsement also helps in building brand image because a brand with good image can acquire consumers’ preference and buy a product because it makes them feel safe and trustable.
Credible endorsers enhance advertising effectiveness (Eisend&Langner 2010) because, when their integrity is high, customers are more likely to agree with the arguments given in the ad, on the other hand customers aims to deny arguments coming from a source with a low degree of integrity or credibility (Grewalet al. 1994).Credibility of the source is composed of two dimensions: expertise and trustworthiness (Hovlandet al. 1953).
Branding and Celebrity endorsements are both interlinked to each other since many celebrities today are more recognized by the brands they are associated with. (Manjusha & Dr. segar September 2013) A product which meets customer expectations in terms of its performance parameters can only be reinforced by celebrity endorsement and promotion! (Manjusha & Dr. segar September 2013) When a product is being endorsed by a famous celebrity then it will result in better brand recall and better brand recognition. People also start affiliate their status to that of the product that they consume and the celebrity associated with it. (D.Goutam 2013)
“The power of the celebrity (celebrity endorsement image) as reflected by the market niche’s (target) perception of the celebrity’s psyche, trustworthiness, integrity, reputation and attractiveness gives the consumers’ appeal and acceptability of the endorsed brand some acceptance. The acceptance to change modified by the strength of psychological commitment between brands and consumers and the associated power of communication of the endorser change opinions, point of view, intentions, and attitudes about a brand; thus promoting brand switch, changing allegiance, and greater impact on assessment of brand and its purchase intentions” (Cohoi and Rifon 2007)
Factors of persuasiveness, brand image and celebrity endorsement are the most important contributing key elements in advertising which if properly designed and utilized, then could change the consumers’ buying behaviour to purchasing objectives Shumaila Ahmed and Ayesha Ashfaq (2013) Whether celebrities create credibility for companies or risk the identity of brands is a concern that will continue to baffle advertisers. Celebrity Endorsements significantly impacts Brand Differentiation (G. Radha, Jija.p 2013) As a consequence, endorsers can influence consumers’ perceived brand image as the personal identities of spokespersons are virtually connected with the brand by consumers (Keller, 2008) Affiliation of the celebrity with a controversy or ill-behaviour can cause negative impact to the brand image (Debiprasad Mukherjee 2009)
Consumers are motivated by their self needs to utilize brand associations derived from celebrity endorsement in a contingent fashion to construct and present their self-identities. (Debiprasad Mukherjee 2009) The potential benefits from endorsement for the brand owner are clear so long as the links are genuine and match links in the consumer’s mind. (Rennae Daneshvary R. Keith Schwer2000) One-in-four advertisements use celebrity endorsement (MarketWatch, 2006). Celebrity endorsement influences advertising efficacy, brand prestige, brand remembrance, purchase intentions and even purchase attitude. Recent research has also demonstrated that celebrity endorsement leads to a favourable attitude toward the endorsed brand (Till et al., 2008)
The present research indicates that celebrity endorsement is an effective tool for building brand equity indirectly through building brand credibility and suggests guidelines for selecting an effective endorser. Amanda Spry Ravi Pappu T. Bettina Cornwell (2011) Accordingly, campaigns involving celebrities are believed to bring more positive results if they are properly integrated than traditional non-integrated campaigns (Bertrand and Todd, 1992; Rogers, 1997). Beliefs and personality assertions of endorsers need not be verbally and explicitly stated in advertisements, but can be inferred by receiver (Batra and Homer 2004). Celebrity endorsement decisively gives more visibility to the product endorsed. (Pradeep agrawwal Dr.S.K dubey 2012)
Celebrity endorsement is one of the popular and effective strategies of advertisement. Now a day’s celebrity endorsement is a common practice of promoting products, services, ideas, and events worldwide. In Pakistan many people can watch films and there is an image of celebrities in their mind. Celebrities can be cricketer like Shahid Afridi, Kholi or they can be star like Shahrukh khan, Katrina and Shan. Many multinational companies make advertisements by giving whopping amount to celebrities to attract their customers. Companies increase the demand of their products with the number of advertisements, and most multinational companies/organization use celebrities for advertisements as the focus of communication; celebrity endorsement is a very famous, well-known and favored promotional method (MacInnis et al, 2002).
Advertising is an influential tool which can persuade customers and convey information to the market. In order to further improve or embellish the convincing appeal of communication, producers have come to entrust greatly on the use of celebrities and well- known persons as endorsers of their products (Sadia Aziz, Usman Ghani, Abdullah Niazi, Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences 2013).
Patzer (1983) finds that an attractive endorser can make consumers have better preference and purchasing motives, and a reliable endorser can influence brand image, brand equity and purchase intention. Dobni and Zinkhaml (1990) Celebrity endorsement helps in building brand image because a brand with good image can acquire consumers’ preference and buy a product because it makes them feel safe and trustable.
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