Ethos, Pathos, Logos: Definition and Difference


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Rhetoric; or communication skills, both written and verbal, form the foundation of classical education. In ancient Greece and civilized Rome, rhetorical rituals, critical appreciations, and judicious discourses in public relations before the courts, diplomatic and cultural, and political debates are disciplined in all normal learning environments. Aristotle’s influential literature on the subject defines discourse as a technique of recognition (and application) and can, in some cases, be a tool of persuasion. His theoretical work and his contemporary discourse, especially the speeches and writings of Cicero and Quintilian, constitute an important resource in this area and are essential for all future contributions on this subject; which provides the basis and the framework to the subject matter. Many basic principles of discipline and practice, such as clarity, power, simplicity, and truth, are as effective and useful today as in the 24th century. Moreover, these basic principles have been strongly confirmed by the latest research in psycholinguistics, semiotics, and cognitive science: the way humans think, learn, speak, write, and solve problems, ideas, and impressions. The sector and the transportation sector have been instrumental in understanding the form. Especially in the era of electronic media and uninterrupted entertainment (in the age of attention, in billions of seconds and billions of bytes of information), the classic formulation of effective communication principles is very valuable.

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Rhetorical methods of persuasion are called ethos, logos, and pathos, which are the basis of persuasion. Aristotle invented these three words in his book; ‘on rhetoric’. According to Aristotle, public reflection on the character of a missionary or writer affects the extent to which people believe or persuade this argument. This perceived personality is called the speaker’s or writer’s ethos. Essentially, a friendly person can convince the public that he must have a conscience, respect others and easily absorb knowledge. In many cases, the public knows the nature of the speaker or author before the event occurs. This is called the external ethos of man, or the reputation of the person we are talking about now. Speakers can gain a high profile from the audience through the publications, experience, and knowledge discussed above. However, before the event occurred, the speaker’s public understanding and the information presented in written and audio form impressed the character. The public’s conclusion about the reliability of the speaker receiving the information is crucial. Public institutions and roles (such as governors and presidents) and publications also show a spirit or credibility. For example, the Washington Post is considered a more reliable source of information than national investigators. In most cases, the public believes that people with a strong sense of responsibility are more reliable than those without honor or title. You can convince the public whenever the words and writing of a speaker or writer are credible and ethos.

Pathos, another persuasive rhetoric style praises emotions, identity, and public interest. For many centuries, many rhetoricians have long believed that this pathos was the most powerful call, but rarely spoke about it, and did not discuss the power of emotion to change someone’s point of view. Use of universal prejudices for personal identity and self-interest. Even without functional problems, writers belonging to groups recognized by the public and those who create their own groups are often more convincing. People naturally think that it is more attractive for tempted speakers and writers than humiliated. Therefore, expert writers use the words of the public they are confronted with to create a positive image, an image that real readers can recognize. Establishing an identity between the writer and the reader and displaying the speaker’s device means that the audience with whom he speaks is particularly powerful. This can help to strongly convince the audience of emotions and sometimes even to determine them. For example, if a writer wants a reader to rate something negatively, try to irritate the reader. Or, to create a program for someone (for example, to convince us to donate to a charity), the discussion can arouse our sympathy. Directly inducing readers to feel emotions (for example, ‘crying immediately’) is ineffective. Instead, to create emotions with words, you often have to recreate scenes or events that cause emotions. Therefore, describing what is painful or interesting can affect emotions. Controversy is a natural trigger of emotion. For example, if a person is usually angry with another person, they will benefit if they are not qualified. Thus, an arbitrator who wants to be angry or unfairly angry with someone can be rewarded.

The logos is the third and last method of persuasive persuasion, which is a clear reason given by rolling to support this situation and the discussion of the dialogue or the text itself. There are several ways to describe the support provided by an argument, but the most common starting method is to find all the locations that the author seems to provide. Since they are present throughout the discussion and can be expressed indirectly, the premise itself is a rule. The public should then ask the mediator to determine which buildings will submit their consent as a topic of discussion. The object of the contract is basically a fact or a value. Of course, this may not be the case and the reader may disagree with the hypothetical value. Some buildings will be more compatible, but each argument should in principle be part of the contractual terms shared between the argument and the public.

There are so many styles and devices used for rhetoric, such as:

  • Alliteration: The first repetition of the static sound.
  • An allusion is a reference to an event, a place, or a person.
  • Amplification typically reuses words or phrases to emphasize and uses other attributes to clarify their meaning.
  • On the other hand, these metrics show something and emphasize the similarities between them.
  • The anaphor repeats a word or phrase in a continuous sentence.
  • Antanagoge garners criticism and praise for minimizing impact.
  • Antimetabole repeats words or phrases in reverse order.
  • The words used in anticoagulants have the opposite meaning of satirical or comic effects.
  • Contrast connects two things.
  • An appositive properly places the statement next to the name or other name statement for an explanation.
  • The enumeration creates points in detail.
  • Epilepsy repeats something from the beginning of the last sentence of the sentence.
  • The tone is a descriptive word or phrase that describes the quality of a person or thing.
  • Epizeuxis repeats a word to confirm.
  • Litotes uses negative numbers to emphasize positive numbers for a discrete expression.
  • Metanoia has modified or limited the declaration.
  • The metaphor is an implicit comparison that compares two things to one another.
  • Metonymy is a metaphor that refers to the closely related content between comparators.
  • Onomatopoeia is words that mimic the sounds they describe.
  • Oxymoron created the paradox of two words
  • Parallel processing uses words or phrases with similar structures.
  • A simile compares one object directly to another.

Now, after knowing the styles and devices and classical rhetoric, it is time to apply them to a text. The text which was chosen is Sonnet 73 by Shakespeare (see the appendix).

Famous: Sonnet 73, written by William Shakespeare, a famous British poet, and playwright, is a beautiful work that compares life to the universe. It was published for the first time in 1609. This poem explores the phenomenon of time and aging. Compared to the entire universe, poetry expresses life over time.

‘Sonnet 73’ represents life and time: as this poem speaks of the age of life, the poet tells his friends that when the spring of life comes to an end, his last years will require more. He explained that there was almost no time to display clear images, such as ‘winter bough’. These images reflect his impending death. As a result, he imagined he was about to die and sought the love and sympathy of his friends. The purpose of revealing his reduced ability to close is to let his friend love him when he dies. This poem contains an important message: the power of true love can help us live a happy life.

Main theme: Poetry includes two main themes: love and death. The natural images used in poetry raise the idea that death is inevitable. Finally, the speaker represents the cycle of human life and immortal nature. Considering the human mortality rate, explore the theme of love that will continue to exist with age. In fact, he wants his lover to understand life. For him, death separates them. Therefore, they should make full use of the time allotted.

Alliteration: The sound / s/ in ‘Death’s second self that seals up all in rest.’

Image: The photo allows the reader to understand the feelings of the author. Shakespeare uses visual images such as ‘when yellow leaves’, ‘by black night doth’, and so on.

Symbolism: Symbolism is the use of symbols to represent the behavior of ideas and attributes, giving them different meanings of literal meanings. The symbols used by Shakespeare include ‘black night’ and ‘Sunset fadeth’. The night and the sunset symbolize the end of death.

Incarnation: The avatar is the attribution of human characteristics to antibiotics. Shakespeare used the reincarnation of the eighth line, ‘Death’s second self, that seals up all in rest,’ as if death were the same as a human.

Metaphor: Shakespeare uses metaphors in each place of poetry. For example, “the twilight of such day”, “black night” and “glowing of such fire That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,’ the proportion of metaphors tells the last stage of his life. These expressions are: now, past, future.

Metonymy: several statements that replace the name of a thing with something close. Here, the bare branches are replaced by ‘bare ruin choirs’.

In conclusion, rhetorical is very common in persuasion, it is art used from many centuries ago. Aristo was the first to meld rhetoric with persuasion, by identifying three methods which are; pathos, ethos, and logos. Each of them is still used to this day in many articles, speeches, poets, even in advertising and marketing. It is fair to say that the closest point to rhetorical analysis shows that Shakespeare intelligently expresses his ideas about aging and love by using these devices and styles to the max.  

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