Globalisation is a complex topic which can be hardly defined. This concept is however explained as a way for the countries and people to be internationally integrated by exchanging products, ideas, views and cultural aspects. These exchanges are facilitated by the advancement of transport and technology which makes the transition smoother and easier (Aart Scholte, 2000).
This paper explains the impact of globalisation on organised crimes by demonstrating how the present technological developments in travel, internet and freedom of circulation, which is an effect of globalisation, helps the organised crimes to widespread.
The particular topic was chosen because it has become clear among people that the effects of globalisation, namely the advancements in electronic communications, technology, and transport are related to an increase in crimes.
First of all, although throughout the time researchers have tried to define globalisation, according to Kinnvall and Jonsson (2002) this concept is very complex and can be referred as all the development that is happening nowadays. Therefore, the authors suggest that because of the broad context and the issues that the globalisation is addressing, it is difficult to be defined. Thus, they see globalisation as everything that happens around us from economic changes to politics.
Also, Kinvall and Jonsson (2002) argue that there is a controversy over globalisation because some people see it as a great development that leads to a better living, while others see it as a threat because of its known impact in increasing organised crimes.
Likewise, for Johannen et al. (2003) globalisation has many meanings. He outlines that recent academics agree to the fact that the term of globalisation is a result of the historical movement, a form of capitalism which comprises changes in events and technologies. Also, the authors believe that this concept brings changes not only in government or businesses but also in the lives of ordinary people (Johannen et al.,2003)
On the other hand, globalisation is defined differently by Marfleet and Kiely (1998) which see it as a way in which cultures, society, politics, and economy became closer. To sustain their arguments, they have referred to Giddens (1964) who saw the concept of globalisation as an essential connector between societies and events happening. In other words, he thought that the society was shaped with the help of the events occurring in the nearby areas and further.
Moreover, Snyder (2002) sees globalisation as something characteristic in today’s society, although, explains that it is uneven spread and it has multiple faces.
In contrast, globalisation is viewed as the progress which will eventually lead to the formation of one culture and society (Findlay,2000).
Consequently, even though the above theories are different, in essence, they show a similar understanding of the concept of globalisation.
On the other side, crime can be better defined by its causes because it is characterised by each culture and population (Findlay, 2000). Traditionally, crime is defined as any violation of the law, either if it is an act forbidden by law or any other offence that disregards the justice system in order to harm or destroy something. The punishment for an offender it is either a fine or imprisonment, sometimes both together.
Furthermore, following the theoretical aspect of the main topic of this paper we will be outlining some examples of organised crime and in the last part of the paper, the link between globalisation and organised crime will be discussed.
According to Sangiovanni (2005), an organized crime refers to a crime that is organized between more than one country and is coordinated by groups of individuals. These networks plan and execute illegal businesses by using violence and corruption. Also, these organized crimes are significantly benefitting from globalisation.
There are multiple crimes considered organised outlined in many pieces of research, and they are considered critical.
One of these organised crimes is the drug trafficking. Drugs trade has become a growing market across the globe. The most-traded drugs on a global level are cocaine and heroin. Approximately 90% of the global trade of heroin is coming from Afghanistan while a large amount cocaine supply is coming from South America. These drugs are traded across the globe through designated travel routes facilitated by the advances in transport. Also, a good amount of the drug trafficking profits is used for financing other crimes like terrorism (UNODC, 2010).
Since the process of globalisation is affecting the economy, the social and cultural resources and the natural environment, people are pushed into the trap of illegality. So, in order to not feel the negative effects of globalisation, they get involved in organised crime. Firstly, because of the poverty and marginalisation, they start borrowing money from crime organisations, knowing that in the desire to have a better life, they risk their lives (UNODC, 2010). Moreover, as this is an illegal procedure, these people who in most cases have no way to give the money back after borrowing them, are involved in illegal acts and become slaves as a way to pay their debt. These events are commonly known as human trafficking or modern slavery (Haken, 2011).
Another kind of human trafficking is the sexual exploitation, where are mostly involved women or girls. This violation of human rights became the fastest growing organized crime in the world (Raymond,2002). According to Eduardo (2002), approximately 200 million people are under the control of human traffickers worldwide. These women and children, who are victims of human trafficking, are most common exploited by their husband, family members or friends which either kidnap their victims or they make false promises about chances of employment, forcing them afterward to either prostitute for the traffickers to make a profit or they are sold on the black market.
By the same token, with the process of globalization, the international terrorism has increased. Thus, with the evolution of aviation, hijacking became possible, the advancement of telecommunications has given to terrorists lots of worldwide publicity and the development in technology facilitated the provision of weapons and explosives (Eduardo, 2002). Terrorism is financed with the money from credit-card frauds, scams, money laundering and many other crimes, helping the terrorists to travel across the globe and buy the equipment that they need for terrorism (Bequai, 2002).
This organized crime has multiple forms. One of the forms is the one that is state-sponsored. This form is the most known and spreader one which is formed and supported by the political party. But, even though this form of terrorism is still seen as a serious threat, a new form began to produce panic because they are not sponsored by any state, but they are being supported by extremists or violent ideologists. This form of terrorism became more dangerous because they cannot be identified due to their chaotic organization (Eduardo, 2002).
Under these circumstances, to return to the main point of the paper, globalization has an impact on organized crime by facilitating it. To put it another way, globalization has determined the frontiers to change which led to an ease in migration, it has also developed communications which made organized crime to be more active across the world (Findlay, 2000; 59-73). In this case, although the organised crime has existed way before the globalisation process was taking place, with the help of advancement in technology and travel criminals they became more powerful in their organized crimes.
Moreover, along with the rapidity of transport development and the electronic markets, it has become easier for people and organisations to trade and communicate.
Also, due to the fact that the investments, global trade, and financial services became more accessible which is an opportunity for the societies to improve their economy, it has also helped to ease the control of organised crimes.
Not only that globalisation made the countries to be closer through the innovation in transport and technology, but it also made it quicker and cheaper for the traders to operate a financial system 24/7. But the negative side of the globalisation still remains that it helped the illegal economy to evolve (Findlay, 2000).
Even though we can agree that globalisation has positive effects, there is a negative side of globalisation, which is the crime. As Findlay (2000) argues, globalisation made possible for the crime to transform by changing cash money to electronic credit, by exchanging properties, by exchanging information and technology which helped organised crimes to spread globally.
As also shown in media, the growth of globalisation has a connection with the rise of crime, from small street crimes to globally organised crime. Therefore, if we pay attention to the relationship between the crime and globalisation, there are some shocking conclusions. This is on the grounds that the present period of globalization which is driven by ambitious worldwide markets, is exceeding the administration of business sectors and the repercussions are strongly felt by people HDR (1999:30). It is clearly stated in one of the books written on this theme by George (1999), that the result of current ‘corporate-driven, neo-liberal globalization’ is the growth of imbalance between rich and poor, both inside and between nations – where many people are marginalised for being poor, particularly in the less advanced world where the economy and institutions are weak because of their debt. Nevertheless, the isolated poor people will not in any case quietly hold up until they are in that point when they starve to death, yet they will find a way to survive most common by doing things that are at the edge between legal and illegal. Also, Findlay (2000) supports too the idea that there is a connection between crimes and globalisation. His is sustaining his arguments with the help of developmental perception where people think that the crimes happen worldwide because of the financial improvements that happen at a global level, which results in the isolation of the poor.
Likewise, Eduardo (2002) and Antoine Mehanna (2004) refer to the fact that the imbalance between wealthy and poor people is the cause of globalisation, as the process of evolution in the economic area affects firstly the poor. For instance, Antoine Mehanna (2004) proves that this is correct with the help of past literature which has demonstrated the effect of crime on poverty and the other way around. Also, it is highlighted that most of the literature examined by this author connects the areas with more poverty to more crime (Frank, 2000).
In addition, recent and past studies stated that a growth in the income variation results in more poverty. Past and contemporary examinations demonstrated that, by and large, an expansion in salary disparity prompts more destitution (see Blunt, 2000 and Takayama, 1979). Conversely, Antoine Mehanna (2004) cites from an ongoing work by Jonakin (2001) who found that there is not enough statistical evidence to confirm that the wage inequality has any effect on the level of poverty.
Globalization eliminates sections of economies and social orders from the systems of data accessible to the overwhelming society, such as isolation, unemployment or youth abandon. Because the globalisation process excludes these segments to develop the economy and society, it provides a perfect opportunity for criminals to recruit new candidates for their organized crimes such as drug traffickers (Findlay, 2000). This event is considerably more intense in Russia because, after the collapse of the Soviet Association, the Russian’s young population and the Mafia turned into an alluring work pool for people that were struggling (Eduardo, 2002).
Unfortunately, by looking at the organised crimes such as drugs or weapons trafficking we can see that the local business may go beyond borders. As an example, we can take the armed conflicts which are a result of the commercialisation of weapons and the advancement in migration. Thus, equipped clash in the post-Cold War period is progressively portrayed by a particular political environment firmly connected to the geology and political economy of normal assets. Also, there has been evidence that the local crimes are influenced on a global level. As an example of a local crime that have had global influences, we can refer to the instances when the suppy of benefits and outwardness has powered the Biafra rebellions from the Delta area of Nigeria, the distribution happening in many of the oil-rich regions such as Indonesia and Angola. Therefore, although a significant number of these instances are originally based in political background, there are some people from outside this area that are manipulating in order to fulfil their commercial interests (Le Billon, 2001).
Another example of local violence that has global influences is the drug traffic. The drug trade is related to violence and corruption, notwithstanding this is not making it a global phenomenon, but its volume overall makes it an organised worldwide crime (Nelken, 2008).
As stated in Findlay’s (2000) papers, globalization of business sectors has significantly changed the structure of work, the wealth distribution, and consumption through urbanization and advancement. These economic changes are joined by critical worldwide changes of societal standards and qualities, which impact the extension and nature of the local and worldwide crime (Le Billon, 2001; Eduardo, 2002; Mehanna, 2004). This might be a consequence of innovative exchange, data exchange or movement.
Another connection of globalization is the media. The local crime is affected by the spreading of violence through media, from kid’s shows to investigative news. The over-portrayal and legitimisation of brutality by the worldwide media is intensified locally by the accessibility of firearms, the organization of crime by the criminal justice system, and the weak parental supervision. On a social level, these events are associated with the general disintegration of conventional standards and qualities that portray the present time, the one of globalization (Funk, 2004).
Nowadays, the fact that the process of globalization that we see that encourage the economic development, positive social changes and improves communication across the globe is also being used for negative impacts by the organisations of crime not having any boundaries in achieving their goal. Organised crimes are benefiting from the globalization process to improve the speed and distribution of their illegal acts, and also to maintain a strategic distance from recognition and prosecutions that they may face depending on the jurisdiction. The offenders know how to progressively adjust fast to the sudden changes and improvements in innovation, individuals, and merchandise and how to use all these information across the globe while taking advantage of the absence of universal participation between nations. Additionally, they take advantage of the different law setting of each country to progressively undermine the efforts of different nations to control their states endeavors in controling their illegal activities.
As social change is having an effect on the society, so the globalisation of crime is developing similarly. This battle against organised crimes and its dangers to the democracy and people does not mean to only use the Interpol as most people might think. The battle ought to be attempted, covering worldwide methodologies like shared help between states, the establishment of conferences with all the states regarding the removal of crime and additional measures which have to be imposed globally by all nations. Also, through the globalization of democratic qualities and human rights, we can challenge effectively the global problem of organised crime.
Nevertheless, the above action does not mean that the nation will not remain with its power to act and assemble its assets. Moreover, the increasingly inactive part of the states with respect to worldwide economy movement should shift to administrative activities to cover organised crimes refered to in this paper. The gainful impacts of globalization, comprising of a more prominent universal division of work, a more effective assignment of capital through pooling of assets ought not to dissolve the limit of governments to oversee these crimes.
In order to accomplish this objective, the worldwide social political monetary and social association of nations overall request coordinated integrative formative strategies. Along these lines, the accomplishment of higher wages ought to be combined with re-distributive arrangements and social security nets, which will to a great extent wipe out the motivation for nearby wrongdoings. The part of a morally enlivened training in the counteractive action of sorted out wrongdoing is fundamental, particularly in the zones refered to. The dissemination of the learning of the physical and mental mischief caused by transnational and neighborhood violations ought to create the ethical shock that may encourage collaboration in its administration. With a specific end goal to address the main drivers of worldwide wrongdoing, it is important to obtain a real feeling of worldwide social obligation and a worldwide good cognizance, past universal traditions, and national legitimate endeavors. Just a reestablished moral power can teach and motivate society, and battle against debasement, monetary and moral destitution, and the all-inescapable culture of lack of interest and unreliability.
To achieve this goal, the global social political economic and cultural interdependence of countries worldwide demand concerted integrative developmental policies. In this way, the attainment of higher incomes should be coupled with re-distributive policies and social safety nets, which will largely eliminate the incentive for local crimes. The role of an ethically inspired education in the prevention of organized crime is essential, especially in the areas cited. The distribution of the knowledge of the physical and psychological harm caused by transnational and local crimes should generate the moral outrage that might facilitate cooperation in its management. In order to address the root causes of global crime, it is necessary to acquire an actual sense of global social responsibility and a global moral consciousness, beyond international conventions and national legal efforts. Only a renewed ethical force can educate and inspire society, and fight against corruption, economic and moral poverty, and the all-pervasive culture of indifference and irresponsibility.
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