Factors that Affect the Insect Abundance:Insects abundance is regulated by biotic and a-biotic factors. Anthropogenic and natural environment have different factors that affect the arthropods with the passage of time. Survival and flourish at tremendous physical conditions is required particularly for their adaptations and plastic response. Temperature and humidity is the most important a-biotic factor that affect the abundance and distribution of the insect. Different wavelength of light is used like red and far red lightabsorbed by photosyntheticsystem as uncontrovertible produce good developmental signals to avoid the shades. (RubertiI, Sessa G, Ciolfi A, etal 2012)
Insects Response to High Temperature:The temperature ten to decrease the life cycle of the insects. High temperature affect the life cycle, growth or metabolic activity of the insects. Example:Helicoverpa armigera egg period was observed 7. 9 days at 28*C but this period is increased10. 4 days at 25 *C. When the temperature is rise from 10-27 *C the hatching period is also increased. Generation time of theL, increased from 1-3 days with increase the temperature 3*C. 28 27. The survival and fitness of the terrestrial insect in the costal environment is highly affected by the a-biotic factors particularly in case of soil salinity. The study of the rice insect under effect of global warming and meteorological factors was observed in 1992-2008. This experiment is classifyingthe samples into theclusters by 8 regions ( I,II,III,IV). The first 2 and the last 2 cluster was collected before 2000. Population of S. lurida have less 2cluster( I,II) as compare to the L. Oryzophilus have high density in III and IVcluster. ( Kwon Y-S, ChungN, Bae M-J, etal2012)Population dynamics of biological control agent is affected by high temperature or dried land conditions. Eggs of Asian lady beetle ( Harmonia axyridis) were placed under stress condition like 41,39,37*Cthey control the 25*C in ascending order. When eggs are exposed for 1 hour thenshift to their normal temperature 25*C up to their hatching. When egg are exposed to 41* C the larvaedid not mix with it. While for development,longevity, survival, weight and reproduction of the Asian lady beetle is totally different against the thermal effect. (Nigel RA, Hart RA, Jung M, etal 2010). The insect response the different temperature like 9-55*C increase the death rate of the insects. Insectsthriving up to 10*C but lower than 68*C occur the death of certain insects like coleopterons speciesgoes up to > 99*Cafter 9 month at 45% R. H. storage situations.
Coleopterons andPoscopteran99% species (Iridomyrmex purpureus) huntfor small period of timewhen the temperature of the soil is 4. 5 +_ 1. 3higher than their temperature limit. Ants could not bear the high temperature effect patience utilizing plastic responses. ( Nigel RA, Hart RA, Jung M, etal 2010)Insect Responses Low Temperature:Insect are disturb by physiologically, behavioral and mechanically due to the cooling and freezing effect. They change the chemical composition that cause the dehydration of the cell or if they maintain their body fluids keeping liquid lower the melting point. Scientistresearch have made tocheckthe physiological behavior of insect is against the abiotic factors( Sinclair BJ, Vernon P, Jaco Klok, etal 2003”). Experiment was performed to examine the temperature effecton the development survival and reproduction of the insects. Insect could not tolerate the challenge between low and high thresh hold temperature. The death rate is increase and it also affect the development of the insect. Some insects are successfully performed the modeling that help to observed the insect population act and its behavior against to the climatic change. 31 46. some beetles tolerate the oxidative damage against the cooled thermal stress but the antioxidant system is on and prevent from damage. (Lalouette L, WilliamsCM, Hervant F, etal 2011)Pine beetle thrivingand spread with for its better survival rateat warm winter as compared to harmful (-16C) which decreasedextremely. Aphidsproduce 1-5 generation when temperature increased from 2*C. Minute change in temperature affect the oviposition and pre-oviposition period and it strongly effect the survival of insect. Brown plant hopper did not show any affect on its survival ability between the 25-35*C but decreased at 40*C. (yamamura K, Kiritani K. 1998)Humidity Influence on Insect Fauna: Different insect response to the abiotic factors like light temperature food and humidity in various ways.
The abiotic affect the physiology and behavior of the insect. 44 31. variation in the abiotic factors like humidity,light, heat and food provide the stress to hostthe host produce immune response against them. Immune response can provide against the insecticidal effecthunger in case of diet factor. In physical environment important factors like temperature, humidity, light etc. can be examine the change while define thedirect change in physiologicalreaction. (Kwon Y-S, ChungN, Bae M-J, etal 2012). Species richness and insects role change due to the temperature and water availability. Immune genetic response:Immune system is modified due to environmental stress that stimulate the production of stress hormone in the insect for example in mollusks and crustaceans. Immune change can be examine with the change in internal environment of the invertebrates(Adamo SA. 2012). Insect reduced their environmental stress by using malpigian tubules that act as the central key for its survival. (Davies SA, Overend G, Sebastian S, etal 2012) Phenoloxidase levelis affected by carbohydrates. Thermal effect increase dynamics than flight.
The respiration and metabolic rate is increased by increasing the temperature. ( Nigel RA, Hart RA, Jung M, etal 2013)Gaseous effect: Insectsshowed various response against different composition of the gases. Hypoxia or hyperoxia is caused by the maximum or minimum level of carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The terrestrial insect like S. Americana, D. malanogaster, T. moliteor etc. showed various response hypoxia and hyperoxia. (Harrison J, Frazier MR etal 2006)The high death rate was examine in the crickets due to the great amount of fat is found in diet wheninfection was induce to anoxia. Under different temperatures( 15-35*C )and composition of the oxygen( 10,21and 40%) metabolic rate is vary in puparia ofGlossina pallidipes. Dominated effect was examine due to heat effect on metabolic rate of puparia but oxygen effect is not limited,Response to chemicals:In theperiod of pesticidemainly in 1914 abundance of pest were nominated along with remaining effect on foodthat cause the human health hazards. Insects response to the different chemicals,different genetic, morphological, physiological fight against the DDTMusca domestica cause change at the active site in the body. The Ground beetle was born in the South America than they slowly spread in riparian zones andforest where the level of salinity is low. The response of the beetles against the salinity leveli. e. 0%, 35%,70% at 4 and 8*C. The huge body water substance was lost when exposed to high salinity levels 35 and 70% than control level.
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