This paper aims to elucidate the impact of parents and family on cognitive development and the theory that supports that is Social Theory of Leraning. Social learning is a process where in the mind of an individual absorbs and imbibes the environment as it perceives it based on his intellect, background, social variables like parents, friends, neighborhood etc. This awareness is mandatory to develop an overall point of view because any social learning occurs with respect to the views that are held by others in the social circle. No individual can form an opinion unless he is challenged by his peers and opponents and this leads to the critical thinking that results into tempered and moderated views (Anderson, 2001).
Social learning theory theorizes that learning is a cognitive progression that occurs in a social framework and can transpire only through thought or uninterrupted training, even in the nonappearance of motor duplicate or straight strengthening. Further, learning correspondingly happens through the reflection of prizes and penalties, a procedure recognized as mediated strengthening. The philosophy develops on old-style interactive philosophies, in which performance is ruled solely by underpinnings, by placing stress on the significant roles of numerous internal procedures in the learning individual.
Families are one of the sturdiest social powers in a person’s life. They demonstrate kids to govern intolerable conduct, to defer satisfaction, and to respect the privileges of others. On the contrary, relations can communicate youngster’s violent, disruptive, and fierce conduct. This declaration alone could simply clarify how the young may end up becoming an aberrant. It is suggested that confident child-rearing practices throughout the initial years and future in youth appear to act as defenses stopping criminal conduct and supporting youths involved in such conduct to discontinue from delinquency.
Youngsters, irrespective of whether they are of a solitary parent or double parent family, are more probable to develop young delinquents if there is a least quantity of time expended with the protectors. Protectors actually need to be “parents” rather than merely deliver for the youngster. Parents deliver arrangement which involves rubrics, reassurance, and any type of reliable adult conduct that a young can use as rules through his or her teenage years.
Though a bulk of delinquents are from lone parent families, delinquency is nurtured by a lack of parent and juvenile communication. Monitoring the child is also a main influence in the direction of the creation of delinquency. By spending time with a young as a family through domestic doings, it not only delivers that essential management for being conscious of the location of the teenager, how the youngster is effective expressively, and how he or she is doing as an teenage, it makes confident interaction with the parents that is wanted for a vigorous background.
Functionalist Theory is a macro level social theory that reflects family as a societal unit that is made in order to help in specific purposes in the society’s growth, passing of legacy to future cohort and division of labor amongst various units of society. Members of family are supposed to fulfill their corresponding purposes to make sure that society is unified.
Gender roles which are exactly well-defined in a typical household unit are an important part of how a family should function. Males are supposed to fulfill protective and financial roles while females are required to perform nurturing and household roles. Also, parents as a concept has an important function in making sure that future generation learns the ways of society and develop as a positive contributor to the world (Harris, 1997).
Functionalist theory is justifiable theory to explain existence of family as family performs an important role in making sure that every individual has defined legal and social relations. Family also makes sure that individuals do not exploit other individuals especially women, for their own emotional, physical or materialistic gains. It limits how people relate and get involved with various individuals around them (Francis, 2010).
Although Functionalist theory justifies function of family as a social institution, but it has been highly criticized by feminists as well as other researchers who place freedom above systematic working of society. Functionalist theory restricts the role of women to mere household work and thus makes them vulnerable to be exploited emotionally, physically and financially. Also, it places high importance on conformism to the norms of community and limits the development of an individual f he finds peace out of family setting (Holmwood, 2005).
Children who are part of families in which both the parents are actively involved in interaction with them, are shown to exhibit faster development and physical activeness. They also take active part in various events at school and neighborhood. Spouses that interact closely with each other have long lasting relationship which gives emotional satisfaction and thus better performance at work and other aspects of life (Rodney, 2007).
Interactions within family members are crucial for survival of family as a social entity. It forms the basis for other two explanations which are conflicts and functionalism theory. Interaction can be either negative or positive but they are always fruitful in growth of a relationship between family members (Rodney, 2007).
Interaction theory has been most accepted approach towards the existence of family as it is an indispensable part of any social institution.
Differences in the family structure and the inclination to lead the individual life based on certain aspects of an individual can be seen as having varied causes like ethnic background, social status of the person and gender. These factors however do not work in seclusion but work in tandem with each other such that the net effect is reflected in what most people will label as personal choice. Women in higher class and belonging to Chinese, Japanese or any European decent emphasize education, free will to get married and choice to have children. This trend is almost opposite in females belonging to African Americans, Hispanics and Asian immigrants. The average number of households in Whites is less as compared to the Hispanics as well as Asians. This is because the parents give liberty to the female child to decide her life partner and choose when to start the family. The socially upward individuals also show that a high level of personal freedom to pursue whatever they strive to achieve in life rather than focus single mindedly on domestic and family life.
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