Features of Pyramids Construction: the Great Pyramid of Giza

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Table of Contents

  • Deciphering the Enigma Behind the Giza Pyramids
  • Conclusion
  • References

The tallest and oldest pyramid in the Giza pyramid complex is known as the Great Pyramid of Giza. They are located on the outskirts of Giza in Egypt. Out of the Seven Wonders of the World, they are the oldest and well preserved to their original state. According to Egyptologists, the pyramids acted as a tomb for the fourth dynasty of the pharaoh named Khufu. It took more than 27 years to complete the construction of the pyramid. Initially, it stood at about 481feet, making it to be the tallest human-made structure for a record of more than 3800 years. The pyramid's original foundation was limestone casing stones that made the pyramid have a smooth outer texture. Therefore, this essay on constructions of pyramids will discuss the significance of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

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Deciphering the Enigma Behind the Giza Pyramids

The construction of the Giza pyramids remains a puzzle. How the pyramid was constructed and who constructed the pyramid is yet to be revealed up-to-date. Despite the common belief that the pyramids were built by slaves or immigrants coerced into slavery, skeletons discovered by archaeologists indicate that the laborers were most likely native Egyptians. Encircling and sloping overpass of brick, earth, and sand was used during the construction process. These processes accelerated the pyramid's length and height as it went up. The progress was made possible using rollers, stone blocks that hauled up the ramp using sleds, and levers. As per the ancient historians, this Great Pyramid took more than 20 years and more than 100,000 laborers to construct.

These laborers only provided the labor in the construction of the pyramid only when the agricultural sector demanded less labour, especially after the river Nile flood. However, archaeologists discovered later that more workers could have worked permanently rather than on a seasonal basis. These permanent workers were approximately 20,000 according to the study conducted by the archaeologists and comprised also priests, physicians' bakers, and other personnel. The designation of how the three pyramids were constructed corresponding to the king to who they were built. For example, king Khafre, Khufu, and, lastly, Menkaure. The three pyramids were pillaged from both inside and outside. A mortuary temple was constructed near each of the three pyramids. The mortuary temple was linked through a sloping footbridge down to a valley temple on the Nile floodplain's edge. There were also subsidiary pyramids near the pyramid that were purposed for burying the other members of the royal family. One particular thing with the Khufu pyramid is it was the single colossal building ever constructed on earth. The sides of the pyramid sides climb at a 51°52′ angle and are perfectly aligned with the main cardinal points of the compass. The foundation of the Khufu pyramid was designed with yellowish limestone bricks. The exterior body and inner passages were made of limestone, which was more light-colored, whereas the internal burial chamber was made of massive granite blocks. In making the pyramid stand out and be a masterpiece, approximately more than two million stone blocks were cut, transported, and assembled by engineers.

The internal walls having few outer casing stones made the pyramids unique to ever being built by any masonry personnel in Egypt's history. The Khufu pyramid entrance was located on the north side of the compass, about 18 meters from the ground. Additionally, it had a sloping corridor that descended from the top and passed through the pyramid's inner side.


In conclusion, the construction of the Giza pyramid stands as a testament to the ingenuity, skill, and dedication of ancient Egyptian civilization. The meticulous planning, advanced engineering techniques, and sheer labor that went into its creation showcase the remarkable capabilities of a society that thrived thousands of years ago. While many theories continue to circulate about the methods employed in its construction, the pyramid's enduring presence and iconic status reflect the remarkable achievements that humans are capable of when driven by collective effort and a shared vision. The Giza pyramid not only serves as a remarkable architectural wonder but also as a symbol of human achievement and the enduring legacy of ancient civilizations.


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  2. Hawass, Zahi. 'Pyramids: Treasures, Mysteries, and New Discoveries in Egypt.' White Star, 2003.
  3. Verner, Miroslav. 'The Pyramids: The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments.' Grove Press, 2001.
  4. Romer, John. 'The Great Pyramid: Ancient Egypt Revisited.' Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  5. Dunn, Jimmy. 'The Secret of the Great Pyramid: How One Man's Obsession Led to the Solution of Ancient Egypt's Greatest Mystery.' Crown, 2008.
  6. Stadelmann, Rainer. 'Die ägyptischen Pyramiden: Vom Ziegelbau zum Weltwunder.' Philipp von Zabern, 1991.
  7. Edwards, I. E. S. 'The Pyramids of Egypt.' Penguin Books, 1986.
  8. Arnold, Dieter. 'Building the Pyramids of Egypt...a Detailed Step by Step Guide.' DIANE Publishing, 1991.
  9. Romer, John. 'A History of Ancient Egypt: From the First Farmers to the Great Pyramid.' Thomas Dunne Books, 2013.
  10. Smith, Craig B. 'How the Great Pyramid Was Built.' Smithsonian Magazine, May 2010.

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