The assessment of the female or male genitalia system is a very invasive procedure that consists of many techniques. To carry out an adequate assessment of the genitalia, the nurse must first consider the patient’s age, as well as assess the patient history and risk factors that may place the patient at risk for dysfunctions and illnesses. The nurse should also collect objective data, record findings, and report to the appropriate health care provider. This discussion outlines the steps involved in carrying out the pelvic examination of a 40-year-old female, and the genitalia exam of a 50-year-old male.
The initial step of performing a genitalia examination in both a male and a female includes obtaining a sexual history. The first question the nurse should ask is, “Are you involved in any sexual relations?” If the patient answers “yes,” then the nurse should follow up by asking, “How many sexual partners have you had?” Questioning the patient on these topics can help with determining if the patient is at risk for any sexually transmitted diseases or infections (Jensen, 2015). Specifically, a female should be questioned about any pain or bleeding that occurs during sexual intercourse. Bleeding and pain can indicate a possible infection or cervical masses (Jensen, 2015). Female History Next, the nurse should collect information on the patient’s menstrual history.
Questions include the following: “Are your menstrual cycles regular?” and “Have you encountered any mood changes or hot flashes?” This can help with determining if the patient is approaching peri menopause or menopause. In addition, obtaining an obstetrical history can provide information on the patient’s overall reproductive health. Questions include the following: “How many children do you have?” and “Have you experienced any miscarriages or abortions?” Additionally, the patient should be questioned on methods of contraception used, to determine if the patient is practicing safe sex.
Finally, it is imperative for the nurse to question the patient regarding her last pap smear and the results of it. This provides information on precancerous lesions and helps with determining if further testing is necessary (Simacek, Raja, Chiauzzi, Eek, & Halling, 2017).
The initial step in performing a female pelvic exam is the inspection of the external genitalia (Jensen, 2015). The nurse should inspect for hair distribution, redness, papules, and vesicles. This can help with evaluating if the patient has infestations or any sexually transmitted diseases. Next, the nurse should palpate the internal genitalia to assess for swelling and tenderness that may indicate abscesses or masses. At this time, the nurse should also obtain a pap smear to screen for cervical cancer (Simacek, Raja, Chiauzzi, & Halling 2017). Male Health History It is crucial that the nurse question the male patient regarding monthly testicular self-examinations.
An example includes, “Can you explain to me how you perform a testicular self-examination?” The next question should include the following: “Have you ever received a prostate-specific antigen screening?” This can further assist in assessing for possible cancer (Bagnall, 2014). Furthermore, questions regarding sexual dysfunction include the following: “Have you been experiencing unwanted erections or difficulty with erections?” This helps with determining if further diagnostic testing is warranted.Male Genitalia Examination The initial step of a male pelvic examination begins with the inspection of the groin, penis, scrotum, and perineal area (Jensen, 2015). The nurse should inspect for infestations or tinea cruris (jock itch), which provides information on the patient’s hygiene level.
Next, the nurse should palpate the testes, scrotum, and vas deferens, noting any irregularities, such as cysts and masses.
The assessment of the female or male genitalia can provide vital information on a patient’s reproductive health. Age-appropriate questions for a 40-year-old female address menopause, contraception methods, and pap smear screenings. For a 50-year-old male, appropriate questions cover the performance of testicular self-examinations, prostate-specific antigen screenings, and sexual dysfunction. The careful assessment of a patient’s genitalia allows a nurse to assess for early cancer and diseases.
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