Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a mode of nutritional support where foods or fluids are passed into the circulatory system through the peripheral veins. Malnutrition is a major cause of vitamins, proteins and minerals deficits in our bodies. TPN therapy is administered to a patient to ensure that he or she is prevented from malnutrition, antigenic mucosal stimuli are removed and nutrients are restored. The type of therapy is offered to the patient whenever he is at the risk of not being able to orally ingest or digest nutrition. In this regard, intravenous feeding is usually recommended for the induction of nutrients in the body via the veins. People suffering from short bowel syndrome, cancer, and ischemic bowel among other diseases are most likely to use TPN support.
Nutrients intake is fundamental for fighting diseases and living a healthy life. Whenever a nutrient deficiency condition occurs, it is important that one seek medical attention from a nutritionist. In this cases, it is critical to have a healthy and adequate dietary intake from a consistent consumption of good food. However, nutritional support is provided using enteral tube feeding (ETF), or oral supplementation and parenteral nutrition with an objective of meeting the patients’ nutritional needs. If it is feasible, it is given through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which is cost effective (Abunnaja, Cuviello, & Sanchez, 2013). This can be achieved through various methods which include, food fornication, oral nutritional supplements and external tube feeding (ETF). TPN may be considered as the only feasible choice for patients suffering from such disorders that require bowel rest or have a functioning GI tract such as bowel obstruction, Short bowel syndrome due to surgery and pediatric GI disorders.
Technological advancement and findings from medical research have indicated that a large number of people suffering from malnutrition are as a result of poor feeding habits. Accordingly, selection and isolation of essential types of food have been a major factor that hinders elimination of vitamins and minerals deficiency diseases. Besides, the development of antibiotics and healthy lifestyle, the prevention perception has shifted to medical attention for the treatment of degenerative and chronic diseases which are termed as complex etiology (Livingstone, 2015). The evolvement of medical technology and nutritional knowledge has greatly affected personal healthcare provision. The development parenteral nutrition evolved as a result of the scientific rationale that insisted on the need for a prescribed diet.
During care and treatment process it is important that the patients receive adequate nutrition and hydration in order to sustain a healthy life. In this regard, various foods and fluids are advocated to meet the nutrition requirements. Consumption of appropriate standard foods and fluids such as dairy products and snacks that are high in proteins, energy, minerals, and vitamins are encouraged. It is advisable to frequently consume nutritious or supplements with appropriate dietary advice and as prescribed. Accordingly, people must have their nutritional needs assessed and provided with parenteral nutrition prescription in accordance to their religious and cultural backgrounds on the choose food and drink (Heidegger, Berger, Graf, Zingg, Darmon, Costanza, & Pichard, 2013)
Malnourishment has become a common disorder for patients in the world, therefore, drawing an effective measure of nutritional support. Careful consideration is placed to ensure each patient is assessed based on the levels of feeding and the type of foods or fluids to be administered. TPN is advocated for if the patients cannot orally ingest or digest nutrition. In addition, feeding should take into account the patient’s preference, religion, and ethical issues.
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