Five Theories of Group Formation

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Five Theories Of Group Formation

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Group means two or more people act together to achieve the common goals. There are five theories in group of formation.

Propinquity theory

Propinquity means nearness. Propinquity theory means individuals affiliate with others because of spatial or geographical proximity. Individuals who work in the same area of plant or work form into groups that are not physically situated together. The disadvantage of this theory is that it is not systematic and does not explain the problems group formation.

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Homans Interaction theory

This theory based on the three elements: Activities, Interactions, and Sentiments. These three elements are directly connected with each other. Activity means delegated tasks to people to work. Interaction means it’s happens when people activity take place. Sentiment means feelings of a person towards others. Interaction is not to achieve goals it find the solution to the problem also. If any disturbance happen to the any three it will affect others also.

Balance theory

Balance theory means people attracted to one another on the basis of same attitudes about common object and goals. Peoples form a group because of the attitudes. Once a group is form it strike to keep a systematical balance between attraction and attitude. If imbalance take place then the relationship will breakdown.

Exchange theory

This theory is explaining about rewards and costs. A minimum positive level of a result must occur for attraction and affiliation to take place. Rewards come from interactions gratify needs and costs come from frustrations, anxiety. Propinquity, Homans and balance these all are included in the exchange theory.

Tuckman’s theory

This theory introduced by Bruce Wayne Tuckman. There are 5 stages in this theory: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. In forming group members don’t know each other. They act in a formal way. Some members are not concern for others feelings. In storming there will be conflicts. Here members concern for others views and dissatisfaction occur. If members can’t resolve their conflict they can’t perform the next stage. In norming members can easily resolve their conflicts because group members have cooperation and understanding each other. They consider others views. In performing group members performing tasks to fullfill the goals. They are flexibility and focused. Everyone involved in the task. In adjourning members are successfully completed their tasks. This is the final stage in group development.

Which explanation is most relevant to the study of organizational behaviour? I choose Tuckman’s theory. Because Tuckman’s stages help leaders to see how their teams individuals were building connections together. Tuckman’s theory clearly explained the connection between the group and task. In case, this theory explained that it requires time to come to the performing stage and it’s typical for these groups to experience ups and downs as they create relationships. This theory perceives that groups develop through different stages from forming to adjourning.

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