Florence Nightingale and `miasma Theory`

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In 1854 Florence Nightingale publicized the `miasma theory`, which was known as the bad smell theory through this theory cleanness was improved in hospitals. The introduction of anaesthetics for pain in the 19th century helped in the improvement of health services and anaesthetics is still being used in hospital, and surgeries. In 1848 Public Health Act was the first law on public health to be passed in the United Kingdom. The Central Board of Health were given a job to improve sanitation and living standards in towns which means that they had to be in charge of the supply of water, sewerage, drainage, cleansing, paving, and environmental health regulation.

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The beginning of NHS was in 1948 as idea that good healthcare should be available to all and this principal has remained. In 1987 the promoting of better health proposed the development of different sectors like care teams working with doctors and community nurse. the introduction of vaccination in 1853 was compulsory.

Mental health treatment in the 19th century, patients where put in the asylum where they had treatment but abused but now things have changed mental health patients are treated in hospitals and are looked after in their own homes. Medicine today function is to be focused on maintaining, or improving the bodies’ functions and improving the general well-being of the body but in the 19th Century health care did not have any treatment program and the treatment they had was to ease the symptoms and also just make the patient feel better. During the Victorian times, hospitals where meant for people of different classes. The people who could not afford a private doctor did not go to the hospital.

Florence Nightingale was an English hospital reformer who publicized the `miasma theory` in 1854. The miasma theory was based on that bad smell caused diseases. the idea of the miasma theory was not accurate, but the measure caused a greater focus on the cleanliness and improved public health. This was kept into service as public health nurses are trained on the importance of sanitation and disease prevention through the nurse’s teaching of the sick poor, and the demoralizing nature of poverty and improvement. 

The Public Health Act 1875 was largely enforced laws about slums clearance, provision of sewer and clean water. It ensures that new homes were built without any connection sewage system. In addition, it ensured that the local authorities had the power to supply water and to compel residents to connect their houses to water supplies. Duty was in placed on the local authorities to inspect for nuisance and they were given the ability to put notices for nuisance. The nuisance meant injurious to health for example living in an overcrowded house and unclean environment.

The beginning of the Asylums was during the reign of King George the Third in 1760 – 1820 which was under the County Asylums Act 1808. The Asylums was a system for people who had mental health problems. This was before drugs and other treatments where introduced. The aggressive and suicidal patient where give restraints. Self-harming and violent people were put in padded cells. Due to abusive management of the asylum lead to the closing down of them. Improvement in mental health after the asylums is that community care was introduced. Patients took part in the decision making of the well-being. With the development, people with mental illness had support in their home’s day services and community-based mental health nurses and social workers.

The introduction of anaesthetics for pain in the 19th century has helped in the improvement of health services. In the early mid-19th century, surgery was a traumatic experience and most patients died from post-operation shock, infection or loss of blood. There was no anaesthetic meaning that patients were fully conscious when being operated on. In the mid-nineteenth century, many new ideas were trialled in America like in 1846, an American Dentist named William Morton was able to use ether as anaesthetic successfully when he removed a tooth with no pain. Until now anaesthetic has helped the health surgeries as patients do not feel when a surgery is taking place and on other effect like blood loss.

There are a lot of attributes which help as a healthcare professional like communication and care. These two attributes play a large role when working in health. In terms of value, care a person-centred value include are the guiding principles that will show the interests of the individual care or support towards the receiver. The attitude in care should always be positive which will be gained during the three years of training. The importance of a positive attitude helps when dealing with tension of the job and to be creative in finding solutions to problems. The ethical standards of conduct for healthcare professionals are related to commitment, confidentiality and relationships . 

Professionals have their own responsibility and moral obligation to all patients, employees, employers, organizations and the public. Ethics place huge role in care as the ethical beliefs are different for an individual for example by agreeing to the terms of working as a health-care professional some ethical beliefs are put aside for example a healthcare professional is given a task help in abortion but according his/ her ethical beliefs it’s not right but because of signing an agreement, should still engage in this process leaving all the ethical beliefs and following the rules. Ethics is important to the health-care professionals to know what is right and wrong. 

Communication is one of the most important skills needed for providing great patient care and improving patient satisfaction. The impact of communication on skills and knowledge these are gained over the three-year course through all the theory and practical work done. Health care professionals should have the knowledge to solve and making important decision. Good communication skills help provide great patient care and improve patient satisfaction. Reflective practice is the ability to challenge the things are done and learning from mistakes making sense of it to identify how to improve in the future.

The use of reflective practice for healthcare professional is important to looking back to what has been done before and know how to improve from that. Reflective practice allows a health professional to look at their practice in order to improve the quality of their performance at work. Looking at the strengths and weakness can also be recognized from reflection, allowing an increase in the development needed to be improved. Reflective practice helps ensures that health professionals are learning and improving from the situation they have been in . 

According to Jasper (2003) the model of reflective practice was to involve three simple questions to be asked of the experience or activity on what happened, what? Learning from the mistakes, So what? Action from a new viewpoint, Now what? . The importance of reflective practice helps the health professional to be engaged in a situation. It helps trains the brain to pay attention on the problem and it keeps the professionals driven to find a way out to that problem.

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