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Fused deposition modeling process parameters: a review of present and future

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Nowadays, the additive manufacturing processes including FDM process are required to deliver the consistent quality, high productivity rate, safety, low manufacturing cost, and short lead time. In order to meet these requirements, the FDM process parameters must be established for each application . The quality of the final part is decided by process parameters

Currently, the default setting Of process parameters provided by the manufacturer is used by user. However, in some cases, these default values do not guarantee quality of the printed part, since there are several process parameters that need to be considered . The key success of the FDM process depends upon the selection of process parameters. Determination of the parameters for FDM process plays an important role to ensure quality of products, avoid unacceptable wastes and large amount of scraps, enhance productivity rates and reduce production time and cost .

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(A) The layer thickness which is recognized as the height of the deposited slice from the FDM nozzle as shown in. The layer thickness parameter is used to examine the influence of building thicker or thinner layers on the outcome quality. In upright samples, tensile and flexural strengths increased as layer thickness increased.

(B) The orientation of the part is defined as how the part should be positioned when produced Upright samples exhibited inter-layer with lower strength and stiffness performance. On the other hand, on-edge and flat samples showed trans-layer with the highest properties. In addition, the results have highlighted fracture behaviour for the on-edge and flat orientations. On-edge oriented samples exhibited the best flexural performance were of the same order as flat samples.

(C) Raster angle or orientation which is measured from the X-axis on the bottom part layer as shown in Fig.-2. Also, it refers to the direction of the beads of material (roads) relative to the loading of the part. The deposited roads can be built at different angles to fill the interior part. shown in Fig.2 .

(D) The raster width or road width which refers to the width of the deposition path related to tip size. It also refers to the tool path width of the raster pattern used to fill interior regions of the part curves .

(E) The air gap parameter which is defined as the space between the beads of deposited FDM material as shown in Fig.-4 . Hence, the influence of applying positive and negative gaps between the deposited beads was investigated.

( F) Contour width refers to the width of the contour tool path that encloses the component coils.

(G) Contour to contour air gap refers to the distance between contours when the component packing style is set to several contours .

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