Nearly all parents believe that the aim of kid rearing and discipline is to assist a child to become productive, pro-social member of society. However, the manner a parent raises a child to attain the near-common goal of turning him or her into an associate worthy member of society is essentially supported by cultural norms (Coleman, 2018). Cultural norms suggest that a child’s development depends on the geographical location that he or she is born. But the public may say that the standards in the world are more fluid and change. Nevertheless, whether a parent provides comprehensive advice or insists on the autonomy of a child, all parents could understand that the future of children depends on the way they are nurtured. In Coleman’s article, he describes the Asian disciplinary parenting as an act to save face. Most Asian parents put considerable importance on a child growing up as a part of a collective community, both within the family and outside the family, where members are expected above all else to be polite and respectful. However, as they reach the age of comprehension, the discipline that goes with raising an honest child doesn’t seem after the age of five. Only if a child is older will the normal “tiger parent” seem, driving their kid towards excellence and demand that they need to be a positive family member. Though physically hitting a child within the quest of success continues to be widely unacceptable, threats, and verbal harshness are usually committed to keeping a child on target(Coleman,2018).
The techniques used by parents in discipline is related to the internalization of behavioral problems in children (Blackson, Tarter, & Mezzich, 1996). It could also contribute to externalizing behavior problems in children according to the study of Parke and Deur in 1972. Meanwhile, Slicker (1998) found that discipline from various sociocultural groups whose parents were authoritarian, by which they received firm discipline and warmth, appeared to be well-adjusted and pro-social, with low levels of internalization and externalization of behavioral problems. On the other hand, as described by Baumrind (1993), daughters whose parents provided a medium level of discipline, appeared to manifest problems of internalizing actions and low self-esteem. Comparatively, authoritarian parenting was associated with optimum adjustment for children, while indulgent (low discipline, high warmth) and neglectful parenting styles (low discipline, low warmth) were correlated with the worst outcomes for children.
Problematic disciplinary methods, such as inconsistency, violence, and the use of aggression, were directly linked to the issues of child behavior (Parker & Deur,1972; Strassberg, Dodge, Bates, & Pettit,1992). It has been found out those parents who use calm discussion and encouragement during disciplinary meetings, and those who use preventive teaching as a disciplinary strategy have children with fewer behavioral problems (Pettit, Bates, & Dodge, 1997). Even ordinary corporal punishment, such as spanking has negative side effects as a disciplinary practice (Finkelhor, Turner, Wormuth, Vandermminden, & Hamby, 2019). A number of systematic meta-analysis studies have found that it is related to worse developmental outcomes, including higher levels of subsequent violence, lower moral internalization, weaker parent-child relationships, more mental health problems and delinquency (Gershoff, Shawna, & Durrant, 2017).
As cited by Pappas (2019) it has found that extreme corporal punishment could have a maladaptive effect in the brain. One study conducted by a Neuroscientist at Johns Hopkins University named Yi-Shin Sheu, Ph.D., in 2010, found changes in dopaminergic cells in young adults who had been harshly physically disciplined as children. These changes that the researchers hypothesized could be associated with increased drug or alcohol risk. Another research in 2009, led by Harvard Medical School’s Akemi Tomoda, MD, Ph.D., found a reduced volume of prefrontal cortical gray matter in young adults who had has been exposed to extreme corporal punishment as children, especially in areas of self-knowledge and understanding of attitudes and actions of others (Pappas,2019).
Children meet the parent’s needs for proximity, fulfillment, and quality of life (Brooks, 2011). Parents are responsible for providing children with opportunities to grow and evolve into a healthy individual and a contributing member of society. Families are especially during the early years of childhood, are an important part of a child’s development.
Discussion of Theories
Discipline is the method of teaching children their society’s values and normative behaviors. It is the direction of the social, emotional, and physical development of children, allowing them to take responsibility when they are older. It helps kids grasp the lines between acceptable behavior, what’s right and wrong, and how to respond in the world around them.
Smith (2004) argues that “there are many other factors that contribute to parenting.” People who work closely with kids, like educators in early childhood, even have their own concepts, and values for caring families. Once parents failed to show their young kids the principles of the ways to act with these places and things in their social and physical settings, these educators will offer a positive background for parents. Further, Smith (2004) describes negative discipline as focusing on compliance and punishment avoidance. Power assertive disciplinary methods involve the implementation with little justification of adverse results such as physical punishment, intimidation or revocation of privileges. Being aware of the disciplinary approaches will help a parent choose effective ways to deal with behavioral problems with their child or their child’s negative behaviors may be shown. Some parents simply don’t know they shouldn’t choose negative forms of discipline, and there are better ways to handle the negative behaviors or acts of their child.
Sigmund Freud in his work, “revolutionized the way we think about children’s experiences in early childhood”, claimed that many of the adult anxiety symptoms were rooted in the histories of childhood (Latchaw,2010). Hence, adult behavior can correlate directly with something that happens in his or her childhood, especially when it comes to fear and anxiety. The theory of Freud about an infant and the mother is useful to parents and families. Children have internal needs that influence action and have no complete control either of them or of their parents. Parents are authoritative guides and advocates on the road to maturity, not growth-controlled generals.
Dawshen (2015) said that it is usual for girls to show signs of puberty after her 8th birthday, which means it is the age of turning nine, while boys are around 9 or 10 years old. This is due to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus which supports the normative development among children. In Robert Havighurst theory of Developmental tasks, he identified that children learns to be independent in the middle childhood which is under the age range of 6-12 years old. Independency is affected by the concept of curiosity, thus a child must have an improved level of awareness with his/her body and the environment
In Brauman and Friedman study, they claimed that ineffective parenting which is a product of harsh and inconsistent discipline predicts conduct disorder in childhood which is strongly associated with academic behavior. Likewise, in a theory where corporal punishment greatly interferes with the cognitive ability of a child, Straus and Paschall (2009) emphasize that the children’s learning and motivation to learn depends on the discipline methods of the parents. If the verbal method of discipline aims to promote a positive approach to the child through explanation and right way of reasoning, then it is more likely to improve child’s simulation than the use of harsh or corporal punishments. The Social Learning Theory (Bandura,1969) also indicates that physical punishment could trigger the aggressive behavior of a child due to their adaptation of behavior through modelling. They tend to learn from their parent’s action. Another theory suggested that a parent-child relationship has a vital role in the development of a child in a social context. Social learning theory support the concept that the families long term key goals in implementing discipline in children is to help the children internalize society’s values and behavior to drive their own behavior (Grusec &Grudnow, 1994).
Additionally, Lev Vygotsky, (as cited in Roth & Lee, 2007), a psychologist from Russia who was born in the late 19th century has his theory in the development of childhood that provides parents with a key role in supporting the development of children. His work tells families that every community, like their ways of solving problems, is unique in their worldview.