India being the world’s 2nd largest populated country with natural resources under terrific pressure requires an imperative concentration for a precise stability between consumption and conservation of natural resources. Studying the responsibilities of different stakeholders in Green marketing strategy and examining the factors hindering the uptake of Green products in India along with the necessity of creating consumer awareness and widespread use of ecological responsive tools to tackle green myopia in India are the foremost challenge as India is presently facing the challenge of degraded environment for which it is paying heavy health and economic price. Indian market is flooded with produces claiming to be green. Further, State declaring subsidies to the production of green products those meeting the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) norms to reduce carbon prints have enabled Corporate world to geared up in enchasing the profits coming from claiming green both from state as well as from consumers.01
3.2 Conceptual Framework of Green Marketing
Among various sectors of the economy, Banking sector has wide prospect to conscientiously participate in economic utilization of their scarce and inadequate resources in more competent way without damaging the environment and assist in tackling the worldwide challenge of ecological sustainability in more constructive and successful way. In this manner it can make significant and imperative involvement in accomplishing the environmental equilibrium through adoption of a variety of green banking practices.02 As such, the present study examines the aspects which influenced the implementation and purpose of adopting green banking practices in the study area. The researcher has made an effort to build up a model involving technology acceptance factors with environment sustainability which is as presented in Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2.
3.3 Green Initiatives in India
For the last two decades, the international and national forces which has moved Indian economy towards more privatization, globalization and liberalization has enormously changed the responsibility of the government both progressively as well as intensively in reallocation of resources and attain net social gain without damaging the lower and weaker stratum of the society. Further, NGOs bridging masses and functionary arms of the government have turn out to be vital and relevant component of the development procedure by shouldering more and more responsibilities in diverse areas. At the same time, Government has also ascertained the advantages and benefits of enrolling NGOs which takes initiatives to drive movements linked with rise in pollution and other environmental hazards. On the other hand, with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) becoming the catchphrase in the corporate sector has imbibed and facilitated more responsibilities and supporting to contribute towards the environment and the people. As such, corporates lending their support and resources in terms of cash and kind to combat the alarm of mounting pollution and to develop healthy society are steadily increasing.03
3.3.1 Environmental Acts/ Policies/ steps initiated by the Government
Pollution which is an issue concerned in cities and towns occurs owing to introduction of contaminants into the environment viz. air, water and soil which may result in unfavorable change in ambient circumstances. The Government passing numerous Acts, framing and implementing policies, schemes and programmes has taken a sequence of steps to deal with issues allied to water pollution, air & vehicular pollution, industrial pollution, improper waste disposal etc. in cities, towns and metropolises. The following are some of the important Indian Acts passed, policies implemented and steps taken in the way of eliminating environmental pollution in India.04
Important Indian Acts passed related to Environment and Bio Diversity
1. Fisheries Act 1897.
2. Indian Forests Act 1927.
3. Mining and Mineral Development Regulation Act 1957.
4. Prevention of cruelty to animals 1960.
5. Wildlife protection act 1972.
6. Water (prevention and control of pollution) act 1974.
7. Forest Conservation Act 1980.
8. Air (prevention and control of pollution) act 1981.
9. Environment Protection Act 1986.
10. Biological Diversity Act 2002.
11. Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (recognition of rights) act 2006.
Policies related to Environment and Bio Diversity
1. National Forest Policy.
2. National Conservation Strategy and Policy statement on Environment and Development.
3. National Policy and macro-level action strategy on Biodiversity.
4. National Biodiversity Action Plan (2009).
5. National Agriculture Policy.
6. National Water Policy.
7. National Environment Policy (2006).
Steps taken by the Government (Central and State) to reduce environment pollution
Some of the major steps taken by Central and State Governments according to the initiation by the National Green Tribunal to come out with solutions in reducing environment pollution are as under:
a) Introduction of road traffic measure,
b) Boosting green cover besides roads,
c) Sprinkle water to trees close to the roads,
d) Vacuum cleaning of roads,
e) Promotion of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan,
f) Clean rivers and water bodies,
g) Severe directives to construction companies concerning pollution,
h) Focus on renewable energy generation to reduce carbon emissions,
i) Prohibition to firecrackers sale,
j) Cleaning burning of solid waste and agricultural waste,
k) Encouragement to businesses investments promoting environmental sustainability,
l) Strengthening non-polluting public transport system05
Eco-friendly schemes and programmes by the Government
Some of the recent eco-friendly schemes and programmes taken by the government are like:
a) Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: This initiated on 2nd October 2014 is India’s biggest cleanliness drive covering about 4041 towns aimed in cleaning streets, roads and infrastructure.
b) National Air Quality Index: This project launched in April 2015 kept an eye on air quality levels in 10 cities throughout the country to abridge air quality performance and help in raising awareness about alarming levels of air quality across the country.
c) Toilets Before Temples: This project emphasized the construction of toilets as over 600 million people across the country were still defecate in the open and also focused on the spread of e-toilets in rural and urban areas of the country.
d) Mount Everest Ascent: As a part of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, with the aim of bringing back of about 4 tons of non-biodegradable waste left behind the climbers of the world’s highest peak, Indian Army with a team of Indian Army climbers undertook this project.
e) Water Conservation: To raise awareness of water conservation, Central Governments directed the state governments to ensure 50 percent of the work undertaken by MNREGA dedicated for the improvement of water in terms of construction of check dams and de-silting of water bodies.06
The following are some of the other eco-friendly schemes and programmes undertaken by the government:
a) National River Conservation Plan
b) Ecomark Scheme of India (ECOMARK) – Ecomark Labelling
c) National Afforestation Programme: A Participatory Approach to Sustainable Development of Forests
d) National Action Programme to Combat Desertification
e) Grants-in-aid Scheme for Voluntary Agencies07
3.3.2 Green initiatives by Indian Railways
Indian Railways by spreading over 66000 route kms has become one of the largest rail networks in the world. By carrying about 23 million passengers each day it has turned out to be the world’s largest passenger carrying system. At the same time, by moving 1050 million tonnes of freight it has become the 4th largest freight transporter in the world. Compared to road transport, railways are more environmental friendly mass transport system. The initiation of Environment Directorate in the Railway Board in January 2015 enabled Indian Railways to coordinate with all environment management initiatives with notable initiatives like Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, Renewable and Alternate sources of Energy, Water Conservation, Afforestation and Waste Management system.08
a. Energy Conservation
In electric trains the implementation of 3rd phase IGBT (Insulated-gate bipolar transistor) Technology for EMUs (Electric Multiple Units) in Mumbai Suburban region is anticipated to lessen release of 600 tonnes of carbon dioxide annually by each train. Like that introduction of energy efficient locomotive technology is expected to reduce 500 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year due to regenerative braking features of new 6000 HP locomotives. Like that, to achieve efficiency in fuel consumption and to save fuel Provision of Auxiliary Power Units (APU) to diesel locomotives, Common Rail Electronic Direct Injection system, Multi Genset locomotives and so on are incorporated in Indian Railways.09
b. Energy Efficiency
From the point of view of cutting down the energy utilization and to downsize the energy procurement procedure, Indian Railways implemented various energy conservation and efficiency measures as the result of which T-8 fittings were replaced by T-5 and CFL fittings, provision for LED lights, energy efficient ceiling fans, occupancy sensors and use of star rated equipments were undertaken. As such, by 2016-17, 1592 stations were fully converted into 100 percent LED stations and remaining stations to be converted by the financial year 2017-18.10
c. Renewable and Alternate sources of Energy
i. Solar power: In order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, Indian Railways through its Solar mission with PPA initiated to set up 1000MW of solar power through developers. As such, 500 MW solar plants on the roof top of railway buildings to meet non-traction power loads and 500 MW solar plants on land based system to meet both traction and non-traction loads were setup. By the end of financial year 2016-17, Indian Railways had about 16MW solar power at their administrative buildings, stations and hospitals. It also had 1MW solar power plant operating at Katra Railway station along with 500 KW solar power plants operating at Secunderabad, Jaipur, Varanasi and Bhusawal as well as 400 KW solar power plant at Kolkata Metro. Further, Zonal Railways were instructed to set up 50 MW solar power plants on rooftop of Railway buildings. Like that tie ups and agreements were entered to set up 100 MW and 350 MW Solar PV plants on the rooftop of Railway buildings at various places across the country. Similarly, agreements were made with Rewa Ultra Mega Solar Power Plant to set up 50 MW rooftop solar power plants, with Solar Energy Corporation of India to set up 150 MW rooftop solar power plants and 50 MW land based solar power plants.11
ii. Wind Power: Indian Railways initiated 200 MW wind mill power plants of which 10.5 MW wind mill plant was set up in Integral Coach Factory at Chennai and 26 MW wind mill plant commissioned by Railway Energy Management Company Limited at Jaisalmer in Rajasthan. At the same time, it has also entered into agreement to install 35 MW wind plants in the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.12
iii. Indian Railways Organization for Alternative Fuel (IROAF): The need for conservation of natural resources and reversing global warming pressurized the search of alternative fuel and other clean energy initiatives which resulted in the initiation of Indian Railways Organization for Alternative Fuel. Bio fuel, the outcome of bio-mass and other natural products turned out to be more effective alternative fuel as carbon dioxide generated by these fuels was again fixed by tree and plants. The use of bio-fuels resulted in reducing 44 percent of hydrocarbon and 89.3 percent of carbon monoxide. As such, Indian Railways started to blend 5 percent of bio-diesel with HSD from June 2015. For this it initiated two 30 TPD capacity Bio-Diesel plants at Tondiarpet and Raipur in the year 2017-18.13
iv. CNG/LNG based Dual Fuel Diesel Engines for DEMU Trains: As the usage of natural gas emitted less GHG than liquid fuels, Indian Railways implemented Compressed Natural Gas based dual fuel fumigation Technology on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fueled Diesel Electrical Multiple Unit (DEMU) DPCs (Diesel Power Cars) which substituted the usage of diesel up to 20 percent. As such, by the end of financial year 2016-17 up to 17 DPCs of DEMUs were converted into CNG based dual fuel engine and about 8 are under conversion which is expected to be completed in the financial year 2017-18.14
v. Solar Powered Loco Commute: Providing Solar Energy System on the rooftop of DMUEs has provided clear environment for the passengers. Turning platform roofs into electricity mediums beneath the ‘Mission 41K’ plan ensured that the in between 2015 to 2025, Indian Railways would save around Rs 4100 crore in electricity bills. The installation of these panels by Western Railways in 23 locations on the Churchgate-Virar route assured a minimum saving of Rs 90,000 per day. Further, the Western Railways intends power tube lights, fans, lighting of food stalls, passenger announcement systems and other ancillaries be based on solar power. On the other hand, IROAF has entered into agreement with Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) located at Dehradun and National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) to develop Solar Assisted Biomass Pyrolysis Technology to produce Methanol and other Bio-fuels for further usage.15
d. Water Conservation
With regard to water bodies, Indian Railways have revived about 97.88 percent (1527 bodies out of existing 1560 water bodies) of the existing water bodies. Further, it has rejuvenation of Salarjung (200 years old) well situated at Hyderabad is yielding an average of 2.5 lakhs liters of water daily. Like that, with respect to water recycling, Indian Railways has so far totally commissioned 43 water recycling units daily treating about 16 millions liters of water. In the financial year 2016-17, nine water recycle plants are commissioned. Likewise, Indian Railways by identifying 3539 buildings comprising rooftop area for more than 200 square meters have installed rain water harvesting system out of which about 3000 rain water harvesting systems are already in operation.16
In accordance with the commitment regarding environmental protection and improvement along with sustainable development, Indian Railways is indebted to plant 5 crore sapling/ trees by the end of financial year 2019-20 either as block plantation on its land or as boundary plantation aside the railway tracks. For this purpose, zonal railways are entering into agreement with their respective state forest departments where forest department plant trees on railway land or along the track sides without declaring such land as protected forest so that it could be reused by railways whenever required. The agreement of railways with state forest departments of Haryana, Punjab, Assam and Karnataka are finalized. As such, in Punjab state about 90000 saplings are planted on 73 km of land and about 16500 saplings on 13.71 km of land in Haryana state by their respective state forest departments.17
f. Bio-Toilets for Passenger Coaches
To keep station premises as well as track clean and to provide hygienic environment for passengers, Indian Railways is offering environmental friendly bio-toilets in passenger coaches in association with Defence Research and Development Organization. This vigorous technology which is environmental friendly with low cost is the first in its kind not only in India but also in the world. Underneath the coach floor, below the toilets the waste retention tanks of bio-toilets are fitted which after collecting human waste acts through a colony of anaerobic bacteria which bifurcates human wastes into water and bio-gases where the gases is released into the air and waste water is drained after disinfection on to the track which keeps both the station as well as track clean. As of March 2017, about 69000 bio-toilets were installed in around 19000 coaches and for the forth coming year 2017-18 it has target of installing about 40000 bio-toilets. As on March 2017, there are 5 sections (Rameshwaram to Manamadurai, Okha to Kanalas, Porabndar to Wansjaliya, Madhupur to Giridih and Barmer to Munabao) across the country which is declared as Green Corridors as all trains passing through these routes are fitted with 100 percent bio-toilets. On the other hand, Indian Railways is working with the intention of sending direct discharge toilet system into history by the end of 2019.18
g. Waste Management
Indian Railways undertook pilot project at New Delhi and Jaipur railway stations to dispose municipal solid waste generated at railway terminals in an environmental friendly manner by converting waste into energy and then using the same for suitable services at railway stations.19
3.3.3 Green initiatives by Indian Army
Indian military has implemented various steps to improve its sustainability and efficiency. By lending its land to host solar energy installations, it is assisting to enhance the country’s renewable energy generation capability. On the other hand, in 2016, Indian Navy has launched warship which runs entirely on bio-fuel. Further, naval base in Karwar being
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