The human population growth in developed countries is stabilizing while that of developing countries including Nigeria is still increasing rapidly. Thus, the search for alternative sources of protein to meet up the population challenge is imperative. Economic indices indicate that as this population trend continues, more people are to be fed. Agricultural outputs needs to be increased rather than through food importation into such countries (Allen, 1993). In developing countries like Nigeria, low animal protein intake has been a principal nutritional problem, especially for the low income and non-wage earners (Amaefule and Obioha, 2005). There is therefore an urgent need to develop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) production as a true way of alleviating animal protein insufficiency (Ajala and Balogun, 2004). Rabbit farming is a new area in animal farming and is adapted to both rural and urban centre, tropical and temperate regions of the world. Its meat is purely white, bristle and palatable, highly nutritious and a convenient source of high quality protein. Rabbit meat has been found to be nutritious, low in fat and fine-grained and it provides a suitable alternative to poultry meat. Also, rabbit’s meat is known for their low cholesterol and fat contents and high levels of essential amino-acid (Okorie, 1997). Furthermore, it has immense potentials which include high growth rate, high efficiency in converting forage to meat, short gestation period and high prolificacy, relatively low cost of production (Biobaku and Oguntona 1997). Hematology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation. Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots, other bleeding disorders and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist. (Wikipedia). Maize is a major feed grain and a standard component of livestock diets where it is used as a source of energy. Other grains are typically compared to maize when their nutritional value is estimated. Other source of energy includes wheat, rice, sorghum, etc. Livestock farmers tend to substitute other energy source ingredient for maize because of its scarcity during off-season. Bakery meal is rich in starch because wheat flour is the main ingredient in all bakery products. Because this starch is already thermally processed (cooked), it is highly digestible, and thus, of high nutritive value. As such, bakery meal is ideal for the diets of young pigs and starter broilers. In general, bakery meal contains about 2,981 kcal/kg net energy (NRC-Swine, 2012), which compares very favorably with maize at 2,672 Kcal/kg net energy. Accordingly, it contains 3,500 kcal/kg metabolizable energy for poultry, when maize is at 3,300 kcal/kg.
The demand for animal protein in the tropics, especially Nigeria is greater than the supply (Akinmutimi & Onwukwe, 2002). The cause to redeem this animal protein insufficiency has prompt for the production of micro-livestock like rabbit (Ajala and Balogun, 2004). Rabbits are small, fury, growing mammals which have long ears and stumpy tails. They belong to the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorphs, the genus Oryctolagus and the specie Oryctolagus cuniculus. The rabbit meat is nearly white, fine grained, palatable, mild flavored, high in good quality protein content, low in fat and caloric contents, contains a higher percent of minerals than other meats, of good meat-to-bone ratio and is acceptable to the general consumer in most countries of the world (Lukefahr et al. , 1989). Rabbit farming is a new area in animal farming and is adapted to both rural and urban centers, tropical and temperate regions of the world. Its meat is purely white, bristle and palatable, highly nutritious and a convenient source of high quality protein. Rabbit meat has been found to be nutritious, low in fat and fine-grained and it provides a suitable alternative to poultry meat. Also, rabbit’s meat is known for their low cholesterol and fat contents and high levels of essential amino-acid (Okorie, 1997).
A study was conducted by Olayinka et al. (2010) on the hematology indices of weaned rabbit fed loofah gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca) seed meal (LGSM) at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Haematological paramketers such as the Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), White Blood Cell Count (WBC) and Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) were monitored. Olayinka et al. (2010) stated that 5% LGSM can be included in the diets of rabbits without any serious adverse effect on their haematological characteristics. Olafadehan et al. (2010) carried out a study on the effect of residual cyanide in processed cassava peel meal on haematological indices of growing rabbits and observed that with exception of neutrophil and eosinophil, other haematological parameters were significantly affected by the dietary treatments.
An experiment was also carried out by Lawrence-Azua et al. (2013) on the haematological indices of growing rabbits fed enzyme supplemented cocoa bean shell. Four dietary treatments were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of cocoa bean shell as a replacement for maize. The result revealed significant differences in values obtained for white blood cells. Lawrence-Azua et al. (2013) stated that enzyme treated cocoa bean shell can be included in rabbits diet upto 30% inclusion levels without any detrimental effect on their haematological indices. Another study was carried out by Ewuola et al. (2010) on hematology of weaned rabbits fed dietary prebiotics (Biotronic®) and probiotics (BioVET®-Yc) at the recommended rates of 500g/tone and 4kg/tone respectively. The control diet had neither probiotic nor pre-biotic while prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic (prebiotic + probiotic) was added at the recommended rates to diets 2, 3 and 4 respectively.
Results showed that the erythrocytes and leukocytes of the rabbits were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. The hemoglobin of the rabbits on diets 3 and 4 were significantly the same, with the control and higher than those of 2. The PCV was significantly higher in rabbits fed diets 3 and 4 compared to those on diet 2. The MCV and MCH of the rabbits fed diets 3 and 4 were significantly higher than those on the control diet while MCHC was significantly affected by the diets. Jiya et al. (2008) in a study on effect of replacing fish meal with silkworm caterpillar (Anapheinfracta) on the hematological parameters of weaned rabbits observed differences in PC, RBC and WBC which they stated were common in domestic animals and rabbits and suggested that the differences were due to gradual increase in Hb, RBC and PCV concentration after birth which continued until adult stage.
Non conventional feed is needed in the livestock industries most especially in developing countries like Nigeria. The scarcity and prohibitive cost of conventional feed sources aggravated by stiff competition between men and livestock for these feeds as well as insufficient emphasis on production (Purcell, 1998), have resulted in the evaluation of alternative and cheap agro-industrial products as source of feed. Bakery waste is a kind of by product which can be used as a high energy feed for animal feeding. Results from different trials with different classes of animals indicated that bakery waste was a satisfactory feed ingredient. The latest work on study of bakery waste has been looked upon and the effort has been made to discuss various aspect of it in the present review. Therefore references pertaining to the effect of feeding bakery waste on weight gain, nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency were reviewed and presented. Paolo et al. (2008) carried out study to verify the effect of bakery waste on the performance of lactating sows.
During the lactation period, Twenty four Hermitage sows received a diet to which bakery waste was added at a dose of 15% (group T) or not (group C); rations were given ad libitum and were formulated in order to meet energy and protein requirements. The introduction of bakery waste didn’t improve the palatability of the feed, despite what has been reported in the bibliography, so much so that the voluntary feed intake of the treated sows was 10% lower than that of the control group. Adekunle and Omoh (2014) conducted experiment to determine the effects of partial replacement of maize with 50% bread waste meal (BWM) on the haematological traits and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens. One hundred and twenty days old broiler chicks were used in an eight week feeding trial; thirty (30) chicks were selected per treatment group and each group was allocated to four treatment diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) with three replicates per treatment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Diet 1, the control diet contain maize and soya bean meal (SBM) as basal diet; while 50% of maize in diet 1 was replaced with BWM in diets 2, 3 and 4 using SBM, groundnut cake meal (GNC) and 50% SBM + 50% GNC respectively as a protein source.
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